Preparing the Young Generations in the Digital Age: A Shared Responsibility

18 November 2009 - A Main Session on Other in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt

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Note: The following is the output of the real-time captioning taken during Fourth Meeting of the IGF, in Sharm El sheikh. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the session, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. HOST COUNTRY HONORARY SESSION "Preparing the Young Generations in the Digital Age: A Shared Responsibility" 18 November 2009 Internet Governance Forum Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt [ Applause ] >>H.E. MR. TAREK KAMEL: Respectful audience, ladies and gentlemen, I am delighted on behalf of the IGF participants in Sharm El Sheikh, as a co-chair of the event to welcome Her Excellency Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak, First Lady of Egypt, and president and founder of the Suzanne Mubarak Women International Peace Movement. Mrs. Mubarak is honoring us today with her valuable presence as she was one of the very early voices worldwide to support the empowerment of views on the Internet, but as well to realize the associated challenges for child online safety. The Internet Governance Forum, in its fourth edition in Sharm El Sheikh, has adopted youth empowerment and child online safety as one of the emerging issues, and we have witnessed, in the last days, a couple of very valuable workshops with international and global participation. We look forward to Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak's keynote speech this morning and to the following international panel about this interesting topic. So please join me, ladies and gentlemen, in welcoming Her Excellency Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak, First Lady of Egypt. [ Applause ] >>H.E. MRS. SUZANNE MUBARAK: Excellencies, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, good morning. It's a pleasure to be here today and personally welcome you to Sharm El Sheikh on the occasion of the fourth Internet Governance Forum. We are delighted to be hosting this timely and opportune international gathering here in Egypt. What an incredible turnout. 1,500 leaders, innovators, pioneers, youth, gathered here to explore ways of using the Internet to benefit all people. I would like to start by commending you for the insight, technical expertise, and the determination to act which you have brought here to the fora. Together, you have enriched the debate, integrating central topics and ideas such as digital citizenship, media literacy, culture creation, and youth empowerment. You have stressed the necessity of looking at the ethical dimension of the Internet through a lens of shared responsibility, of protecting the rights, identity, and dignity of Internet users. Let me also congratulate you on the choice of the theme of this year's event: Creating opportunities for all. And for bringing this vital social dimension of governance to the heart of our discussions and policy concerns. This essential theme shares an important interdependency with other human development goals, including health for all, education for all, and a topic that I just addressed at the FAO this week, food security for all. It raises questions pertaining to the current status of our socioeconomic development, about our ability to achieve the millennium development goals by 2015. It requires that we frame our strategies through a perspective of human rights policies and human rights practices. And it is for this reason that the Internet Governance Forum is so vital, because it gives us the power to realize these objectives. To find an appropriate balance between rules and freedoms, rights and responsibilities, aspirations and realities. To enhance the synergy and coordination of multiple stakeholders. To encourage us to shape policies that are in tune with our diverse national and cultural needs. In Egypt, the population of over 80 million, and still rising, we have struggled to bridge the divides that hinder our capacity to use the Internet to advance our human development goals. We have worked hard to reduce access and language barriers to modern technologies, whilst at the same time increase the affordability and usability of ICTs. For it is not just a matter, as you all know, being experts here yourself, of ensuring that people with access this information, but more importantly, how this online information will serve them. How they will use it off-line. We do not want people to become passive recipients of what the Internet has to offer. We want them also to become its active users and creators. In spite of the many obstacles, our efforts have, indeed, paid off and progress is being made. Over the last couple of years, we have witnessed a phenomenal expansion in the use of ICT in Egypt across the country, driven by a steady growth rate of computer penetration and Internet access, alongside the take-up of mobile phones -- I think you have heard this figure before -- 15 million Internet users and 55 million mobile users in Egypt. A phenomenal figure. The recent introduction of the first Arabic domain will undoubtedly also serve to further enhance access to millions of people, giving rise to new forms of creativity and innovation, empowering citizens with new means for self-assertion and achievement. And as you can imagine, these positive trends continue to have a profoundly positive impact upon the society, especially in terms of youth empowerment. Through its dynamic infrastructure, diverse content, and interactive communities, the Internet is playing a key role in helping young people to access quality education, to find employment, and enhance their participation in all fields of life. Capitalizing on this power medium for change, our Women's International Peace Movement has launched the Cyber Peace Initiative, in cooperation with many partners, I think many of whom are here today. I know that throughout your panel discussions, you have had the chance to become more familiar with the vision and activities of our CPI. But because this initiative is particularly close to my heart, I think it is close to my heart because it promotes young people as leaders, as equal and active partners in solving global challenges. We seek to nurture their creativity, focus their determination, and empower their efforts to create a world of peace. Or, as we always say, foster a global culture of peace. CPI is about using Internet technology to create platforms for dialogue, for disseminating principles of tolerance, respect, justice, and human rights across nations. It is about amplifying the Internet's ability to support positive social change, whilst minimizing its capacity to exacerbate insecurities. Accordingly, an integral part of our initiative is devoted to promoting and fostering Internet safety through education, awareness raising, multistakeholder cooperation, and active community involvement. In Egypt, we have succeeded in reaching out and engaging parents, educators, and, of course, the youth, along with members of government, law enforcement, the judiciary, the private sector, and the civil society in a serious dialogue on Internet safety. Taking practical steps to protect and expand children's rights within our work and activities, we formed youth and parent Internet safety focus groups. Our youth focus groups, who have called themselves Net Aman and who are here with us today have been extremely active, traveling across the globe to disseminate safety messages, to collaborate with other young people, to find innovative ways of protecting children online, of protecting them from exploitation and abuse. These young Ambassadors have greatly enriched our agenda. They have brought to our attention the necessity of bridging the digital divide between generations, including my own, of course. Training teachers, parents, and adults in general to understand the grammar and vocabulary of the Internet. To be good listeners, and to appreciate the spirit and the trends of the Internet generation. As adults, we realize the need to rise up to the challenge and become lifelong learners of this new culture and its tools. In this respect, I was pleased to note that this distinguished gathering of Internet experts has allocated time to listening to youth and teens' voices, and integrating their ideas and perspectives into their discussions. Indeed, youth empowerment and engagement is supremely relevant to the IGF themes. You cannot review the technical dimensions of the Internet, such as information leakage and regulatory models for privacy, critical Internet resources, or the ethical dimensions of the Internet, such as control of one's own data, and respect for privacy, without considering the impact of policies on children and young people as the direct beneficiaries. Our CPI parents' group has also effectively contributed to our mission. It has played a significant role in attenuating the fears of many parents, the feeling that they were powerless to protect their children on this vast medium. Many of the parents who we have worked with now fully understand how they can protect their children without undermining their character or diluting their identity. They have learned to differentiate between the positive and negative aspects of the net, the ethical and nonethical usage of information, the values and dangers of connecting with people from different parts of the globe. And I have to say, I am very proud of the way that our team has been working. As a result of their accomplishments, our Cyber Peace Initiative has been leading the way, regionally, sharing knowledge, developing content, and awareness-raising materials in Arabic and forming strategic partnerships. And, of course, as we have seen in this forum, there is so much more that we can do together on the international scene. It is exciting to see all these dynamic coalitions being formed. The creation of new ventures, such as World Wide Web Foundation, launched by Sir Tim Berners-Lee at the opening session of this forum, the 2CENTER Cybercrime Training Initiative and the teens' Internet safety camps. We must keep this momentum going, keep building on this progress and keep building on our partnerships. Ladies and gentlemen, the future Internet promises super fast optical core networks, hyper realistic gaming and magical virtual experiences. It vows to be quicker, cheaper, and more pervasive. But in spite of these impressive developments, the Internet will continue to be a reflection of the global reality we live in. A vivid reminder of the interdependent challenges that bind us, from poverty to food shortages to disease epidemics and to climate change. Moreover, as the divisions between transparency and privacy are erased, as the walls between the physical and virtual reality fade away, we will continue to feel reverberations of these challenges on the net. More discrimination, more violence, more instability. And it is for this reason that we must work harder to ensure that the focus of Internet governance becomes more people-centered, and that the Internet itself becomes a catalyst for human development. For therein lies the real promise of the Internet of tomorrow. It is being able to look at our computer or mobile screens and see a world where people are living in dignity, in security, and in peace. And I thank you. [ Applause ] >>MR. SHA ZUKANG: Your Excellency, Madam Mubarak, Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, on behalf of the United Nations and the Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon, I thank you, Madam First Lady, for sharing such an important message. We are gathered here in the Internet Governance Forum to exchange ideas and knowledge as we strive to build the foundations of the Information Society. The United Nations seeks to enhance digital opportunities for all, and find innovative ways for technologies to advance economic and social development. The future of the Information Society will be led by today's youth and children. Fundamentally, sustainable development is about meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. The Information Society must be safe for our children. This can be achieved through education and the sharing of knowledge, and by encouraging our children and the young people to grow and to achieve their potential. The First Lady has provided much food for thought for our session on new social media and collaboration tools. Many of these tools are already widely used by our young people. Thank you once again for hosting this important event. We are deeply grateful for the warm hospitality of the government and the people of Egypt. Now I and Minister Mubarak, on behalf of IGF, will present a small token gift to madam Mubarak. Thank you. [ Applause ] (Presenting gift) [ Applause ] >>MS. HODA BARAKA: Your Excellency Mrs. Mubarak, Mr. Tarek Kamel, Mr. Sha Zukang, ladies and gentlemen, we start now our international panel. Please join me to welcome the panelists. Dr. Robert Pepper, Ambassador David Gross. [ Applause ] >>MS. HODA BARAKA: Dr. Jovan Kurbalija, Ms. Marilyn Cade, and John Carr. I would like to welcome you all at the honorary session entitled "Preparing the Young Generations in the Digital Age: A Shared Responsibility." In the past couple of days and under the theme creating opportunities for all, the IGF 2009 held more than ten workshops tackling one way or another with the issue of youth empowerment, involvement and safety in dealing with the Internet. We have examined, analyzed and discussed this subject from different angles and dimensions, because we are convinced that young people are the primary users and innovators of the Internet. The IGF 2009 has definitely set a precedent in including young people in the Internet debate. As Her Excellency has mentioned in her speech, not only by increasing the physical participation, but also by amplifying their voices through the different channel of the forum. We saw them in the workshops, in the exhibition, in the preconference activities, as organizers and speakers, discussants and commentators through their daily newsletter. Our panel today would like to capture and illustrate in 45 minutes the way young people were integrating in the debates on diversity, on privacy, on openness, and development and safety in the last couple of days. We will be listening to some of our key experts in the field about the most important recommendations of the last days, as well the hot issues that have emerged in these debates. That's why our distinguished panelists today includes representatives from the private sector, from NGOs, from the industry that were deeply involved in preparing for the IGF 2009. By the end of this panel, we hope to reach an agenda for action for the international community in the coming year in terms of youth empowerment and safety, to guide our work and spirit of shared responsibility. We start by Dr. Robert Pepper. Dr. Robert Pepper is the vice president of global technology policy for Cisco Systems. Robert Pepper leads a team driving Cisco's global agenda for advanced technology in areas such as broadband, IP-enabled services, wireless, security, privacy, and ICT development. Dr. Pepper, in the ICC 14th annual meeting, you were talking about the exabyte broadband worlds. Cisco actually has developed a visual networking index to reflect what is going on for the Internet, what are the projections and requirements and the trends worldwide. How do you see these protections actually affect the whole world, and in particular developing countries vis-a-vis narrowing or increasing the digital divide, and how video booming will play a role in our citizens' lives? Dr. Pepper, please. >>MR. ROBERT PEPPER: Thank you very much, Dr. Hoda, and it's a real honor to be here. And the entire organization of the IGF by the host country, Chairman Kamel, Her Excellency, has been just fantastic. And I want to thank you very much. So I'm going to talk for a few minutes about trends that we're seeing in the Internet technology and Internet usage. We all know about the mobile revolution. We now have over 4 billion people on earth with mobiles. Ten years ago, this was unthinkable. Nobody would have even imagined that. Today we have over 1.5 billion people using the Internet through dial-up and broadband. And the Internet revolution, in fact, will be on its path to 2 billion, 3 billion, 4 billion. It's being led by the youth. And that's important globally, but especially in countries like Egypt where 50% of the population is 25 or younger. So half the population in Egypt is the youth. We also see that the Internet is moving from narrow band to broadband. And one of the ways that we see this is this project that Dr. Hoda described called the visual networking index in which we have been looking at the trends of usage of networks globally in the developed world, in the industrialized world, in the emerging world, the emerging economies. And what we're seeing is that the usage patterns are uniform, are pretty much the same everywhere. And it's putting huge demands on networks, because of the way people are using the Internet. So, for example, we have found and we have looked and projected traffic that over the backbone, the core of the Internet networks, projecting from 2007 to 2012, which is only two years away, that the traffic is increasing -- will increase by sixfold, by six times, to about what is called 500 exabytes, which is ten to the 18th, right, exabytes per month. It's growing at about 46% compounded annual growth rate, and this is being driven by video. And we are seeing this not just in the fixed networks, but we are seeing that over time, video traffic will grow from about 10% of the traffic in 2007 to about 50% of the traffic by 2012. On the mobile Internet, we are projecting that from 2008 to 2013, an annual compounded growth rate on the demand on mobile networks globally, the compounded annual growth rate will be 131%. That's more than doubling each year. And that by 2013, over 60% of the traffic on mobiles globally will be video. Video is the driver. Make no question about that. And in fact, the most recent study that we did, which we released last month -- again, this is globally -- the average broadband connection -- so just looking at broadband users -- for the average broadband connection, consumers used had.3 gigabytes of visual networking applications per month, including video, video -- two-way video, social networking, collaboration. So what does that mean? What does that translate to? It's over 20 short-form videos per day, or about 1.1 hours of Internet video per day. So video really is the driver and the application that is driving usage on the net. So what does this mean? And what are the implications and what are the implications for youth? First, video actually creates huge opportunities, because video overcomes some very significant barriers to Internet adoption and usage. Right? One of the big barriers we know about, we have spoken about it at all of the IGFs and we have sessions and workshops here, is that there is insufficient local language. There is insufficient local content globally. And there are issues of literacy, that the traditional Internet is text based. Well, video is natural language, it's local content, it's people talking to each other, it's people communicating. It's everybody has the opportunity to become a content producer and a creator, not just a consumer. It fosters engagement. Video fosters participation, personalization and collaboration. And it allows and actually promotes applications that really achieve national and global goals of education, understanding, cultural cohesion as well as cultural diversity. So we can all learn from each other and appreciate each other. And particularly for youth, these are important implications. Youth using video on the net, on broadband, is really driving the usage. And it's allowing youth, like we saw out here in the village, the IGF Village with the youth, as they were going around taking videos, interviewing people, putting them together, it's allowing for creativity. They are becoming tomorrow's producers. They are becoming tomorrow's creators. And broadband and video over the net in these trends are driving that and permitting it and fostering it. But even more important are the issues that Your Excellency raised. These are issues about how do we train youth and help them understand how to become Internet and media literate. How do we help youth become not just good creators but good consumers, and critical consumers of broadband and the Internet? So that, frankly, they can train people of the older generation, like some of us up here. So programs like the Cyber Peace Initiative are only going to become more important, not less important. And if we want these trends to be positive forces for society, then these are the kinds of issues that we actually going to need to address, and we have been addressing here at the IGF. Thank you. >>MS. HODA BARAKA: Thank you. Thank you very much. [ Applause ] >>MS. HODA BARAKA: Thank you very much, Dr. Pepper, for your valuable intervention. And as we have seen, video is actually a key driver for socioeconomic development for our young generations to come. His Excellency Ambassador David Gross. Ambassador Gross is one of the world's foremost experts on international communications, having served for nearly eight years as the senior United States government official responsible for representing the U.S. on global telecommunications issues, and he is currently a partner in the preeminent communication practice of Wiley Rein. Ambassador Gross, we were talking yesterday about hearing many discussions in the workshop about the way youth are drivers for change in the digital age, innovation and creativity. In the workshop dedicated to listening to the voice of teens, the debate went around the opportunities that Internet is offering for our teens, and what is actually their role, their responsibilities, and their rights, actually rights. They were raised so many times in this workshop. And how to find the right balance, actually, between openness versus security. So please, David, Mr. David Gross, can you please tell us how can we really leverage the opportunities given by the Internet for our young generations. >>AMB. DAVID GROSS: Well, thank you very, very much, and Your Excellency, Ms. Mubarak, your Excellency, Minister Kamel, distinguished guests, and IGF participants, it is, of course, a great honor to address you at this important gathering and, in particular, on this important subject. However, if I may, before beginning my remarks, I wanted to publicly recognize something that I think is extraordinarily important. As many of you know, I had the honor of leading and coleading the U.S. delegation to both phases of the World Summit on the Information Society, and I was very much a part of the creation and the negotiations about the IGF, which, as you know, was the result of long and sometimes quite difficult negotiations. I've also had the honor and privilege of attending all three prior IGFs. All three IGFs have been excellent. But I have no doubt but that thanks to the very hard work of Minister Kamel and his extraordinary team, this IGF -- IGF Sharm El Sheikh -- has been without a doubt the best one ever held. Congratulations, minister. [Applause] >>AMB. DAVID GROSS: I should probably end there. [Laughter] >>AMB. DAVID GROSS: As Dr. Pepper just highlighted, the growth of the Internet has been remarkable by any measure. Today, much of that growth, as he pointed out, is driven by our youth. They are also driving new and innovative applications that are fundamentally reshaping the world. What we are seeing, as Dr. Pepper indicated, is a fundamental seachange in real time, not only about the Internet and what is on the Internet, but also how we interact with the Internet. And that seachange is being led by our youth. That creates a whole series of challenges for each and every one of us. We have seen this, by many examples here at the IGF. At its core, our youth are leading the way towards a completely new paradigm of social interaction, where the Internet and all these new applications provide opportunities for interaction and connectedness never before possible in human history. They are changing the world at least at the speed of light. Like all new things, however, these new opportunities pose new challenges for all of us. Many of these challenges involve privacy and security. Parents, teachers, NGOs, industry, government, obviously must all play a constructive and positive role. In the United States, this has been the source of great discussion, and in fact, a great deal of interaction amongst all the various policymakers and decision-makers. We have passed a number of pieces of new legislation that seek to address these issues over the past eight to 10 years now. And there's been a tremendous amount of hard work done by the U.S. government. In particular, by our Department of Commerce and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, where they have, among other things, a group that is focused called the online working group on child security which is helping to lead the way. Similarly, our independent regulator, the Federal Communications Commission, has been very active in this area. And in fact, the U.S. government has helped to establish dot kids as a result of some legislation that is specifically designed to be a domain area where children can go and be -- and parents can feel that they are protected. But I've been especially struck by the proactive, creative, and inclusive work being done by various other groups, such as FOSI, the GSM association and many others that seek to provide parents, children, and others with the tools to help solve these ever-changing problems. As I have looked at this -- and I say this, in part, as a parent whose son is now almost 25 years old and, in part, I mention that because that means he was at the very beginning of where computers and Internet access became ubiquitous, he doesn't know a time when he didn't have access to the Internet. And during that whole period of time as a parent, I have had to struggle, as all of you -- or many of you -- have had to struggle with what is it you do with children who undoubtedly, from a very early age, are much more knowledgeable and sophisticated than we are about these? And that is just the way in which it is likely to be for the foreseeable future. Those challenges seem to me to mean that in its core, it is extraordinarily important that tools be created, that information be exchanged, that, in fact, there are a series of interchanges among parents and teachers and industry and NGOs. But at its core -- at its core -- the long-term way to deal with this problem, in my view, is by active intervention by parents. In talking to their children not in a way of trying to create a way in which they have a greater sophistication of the Internet -- I think that will rarely happen. It certainly didn't happen in my family. But, rather, by teaching them values. By going back to the very basics that we all grew up with. By understanding what is right and what is wrong, what is appropriate and what is not appropriate, and then seeking to trust our children -- who will undoubtedly make mistakes, as all do; that is part of growing up -- but inevitably they will then have the tools that they will seek to use not only as they explore the changing world of the Internet, but, rather, to in addition be able to deal with all of life's various issues. As we've discussed during the past three days, the challenges are great. Especially regarding our children. But the opportunities so clearly are so much greater. A future where information flows freely and our personal connections truly last a lifetime. That is the legacy we are bestowing upon our children and our children are clearly going to grow and prosper in ways unimaginable to each and every one of us. It is an opportunity to be seized and will be seized by our children, and we need to help facilitate that. Thank you very much. [Applause] >>MS. HODA BARAKA: Thank you, Ambassador Gross. Now we'll move to Dr. Jovan Kurbalija, founding director of DiploFoundation. He's the former diplomat with a professional and academic background in international law, diplomacy, and information technology. Since the late 1980s, he has been involved in research into ICT and law, and in 1992 he established a unit for I.T. and diplomacy at the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies in Malta. In 2003, and after more than 10 years of successful work in the field of training, research, and publishing, that unit has evolved to DiploFoundation. Empowering our young generations to become the leaders, I think this is our future. Especially in Egypt, with more than 50% of our population who is actually under the age of 25. Government is working hand in hand, actually, with the private sector, with the civil society, to increase the penetration of ICT and to provide actually opportunities to all our young people. What is fascinating about DiploFoundation is actually how and what is your approach that has been followed in creating knowledge generation and the way you have succeeded actually in capturing the rapid and continuous developments of the Internet into a teaching curricula that has been actually made available for all young people and the Diplo activities that is really engaging young people all around the world. How did you succeed to mobilize all these young people from all around the world? Please. >>MR. JOVAN KURBALIJA: Thank you, Dr. Hoda. It is difficult to add anything after your introduction, but I will try to add a few points. Your Excellency Madam Mubarak, Excellency Minister Kamel, Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, dear good friends from IG community, today we are concluding four days of unique and enriching experience made possible by the government of Egypt and people of Egypt, and it is not -- nothing new in it. The Egyptian hospitality and the way of creating inclusive and creative environments for new ideas is probably as old as Egypt, and it traces back two or three millennia back in the history. Throughout history, people were coming here to experience new ideas, to enrich their horizons, to learn about new developments, and Internet Governance Forum is part of this long tradition. Over the last four days, the IGF served as a bridge. A bridge between digital natives and digital migrants, as I am, bridge between different professional cultures, between programmers, lawyers, a bridge between diplomats and civil society, a bridge between old and new, a bridge between traditional perceptions and new ways of looking at the world. And this continuity of Egypt as serving as a unique bridge for new perspective and new insights was reinforced over the last four days. In this room and other rooms in the Conference Center -- but especially in corridors during the coffee breaks -- we had a chance to discover new ideas, to make cognitive dots between things that we already knew, to develop new insights, to meet new people, and it was a bazaar, annual like in my every bazaar, by exchanging, by selling, we are enriching ourselves and it was a unique experience. The preparation for the IGF Sharm have -- well, for the Internet has a long history. One year ago, in the coffee -- during the coffee break in Hyderabad, during the IGF in Hyderabad, we met with a team led with Nermine El Saadany, and agreed to start preparing unique and different -- well, are I have some problem. [Laughter] >>MR. JOVAN KURBALIJA: I know my hairstyle is usually very attractive for -- [Laughter] >>MR. JOVAN KURBALIJA: -- for flies. [Applause] >>MR. JOVAN KURBALIJA: It is becoming patent, I can tell you. [Laughter] >>MR. JOVAN KURBALIJA: Good. I heard that flies like transparency. [Laughter] >>MR. JOVAN KURBALIJA: When we met in Hyderabad, we agreed that the success of Sharm will be based on the preparation that truly started the next day after the conclusion of Hyderabad, and there has been a lot of work, efforts, creativity, that has been put in the preparation for this IGF and the reason why the IGF is so successful, as the ambassador indicated, is that it involves -- it involves hard work and creative work of many people. When we created this roadmap back in November, one of the highlights was to prepare youth -- especially youth but also other participants -- to experience and to use these four days in the most effective way. What we did, we started the first training for Egyptian participants in February 2010, and then our capacity-building program started in March, involving three phases and involving close to 200 participants from all over the world. From March to June, they were involved in online learning on Internet governance. Learning basics about DNS, ICANN, privacy, social issues development, and other issues. After that, after gaining the basic knowledge, they were engaged in policy research, applying their knowledge to the concrete issues and problems related to their communities and countries. This was the second phase, policy research. The third phase, in this process, was what we call policy immersion, and it has been happening here in Sharm. With the knowledge, insight, skills, they came here to experience firsthand how the global policy processes work, to interact with other colleagues, to participate in sessions, to get information in the -- what is called corridor diplomacy. And it was a unique experience for most of them, and it was done in the partnership with the Cyber Peace Initiative, Net Aman, and also U.N. Secretariat who has been very supportive of this capacity-building program since its very early days. In this way, from completely novice people to Internet governance, in nine months we got specialists who can fully participate in Internet governance process and represent their countries, local communities, their organizations. Most of them are youth. And the voice of youth has been significantly strengthened through this process that started in March this year, and which is ending today in Sharm El Sheikh. The next phase will be the continuation. In Sharm, youth find different ways to send their message. Usually we try to put them in our predesigned way of communicating: Conference sessions, meetings. And they are good in that. We experienced the excellent, excellent inputs and discussions from youth. But also, they invited us to the youth corner, as digital migrants, to show how is the world of digital natives, and to explain in a direct way that the future Internet governance will have different issues related mainly to the world which is emerging very fast. They were also interactive in what they called Twitter diplomacy, with the short messages, short interviews in corridors, asking us direct questions, cutting the long explanation, and it was their way, their modus operandi to participate in the new diplomacy. What we have learned from this process, first, the talents of youth -- of young people -- are rich and diverse. We are teachers, we are guides and we have to create context for them to learn. We shouldn't be sages on the stage; we should be guides on the sides. We have to incorporate their experience into the new mosaic of understanding. Second, we are sometimes asked at Diplo if online learning is appropriate for developing countries. Because stereotype is the developing countries do not have sufficient infrastructure. Our experience is extremely encouraging. When there is a will, there is a way. Usually our students from all over the world -- from Africa, Asia -- find a way to participate in online learning, because sometimes it is the only way to build capacity, to get new insights, and to learn new things. Third, by strengthening the voices of youth and others who are marginalized in global governance, we are helping all of us. If they're not involved in global policymaking, they will find other ways to express their opinion. The inclusive governance is not just the ethical slogan. It is practical necessity for increasingly interdependent world. Tomorrow, when we start leaving this lovely city and your lovely country, we will bring with us 1,500 unique stories and experiences. We will leave Egypt with new ideas and insights. And in my memory, in my cognitive luggage that I will bring with me, there will be one message which will resonate, and that message was conveyed by one of our participants from one poor African country who told me, "I may be deprived from water and food, but I cannot be deprived from learning and deciding on my future. It is a matter of my dignity." [Applause] >>MS. HODA BARAKA: Thank you very much, Jovan. We can see why DiploFoundation is actually attracting more and more young people, and we hope that we have time today to visit also your youth corner in the exhibition. Ms. Marilyn Cade is an international advisor providing services in strategy, analysis, representation and policy development in Internet governance, Internet policy, in cybersecurity, global IP networking services, and related policy issues. Cade's focus is working at the nexus of technology and global public policy in both the U.S. and global forums, in relation to the Internet and its changing role as a critical communications infrastructure. She's actively involved in Internet governance and plus WSIS activities, organizing and representing industry perspectives on Internet governance including the Internet Governance Forum, ICANN, and key political issues related to the role of the governments in the global Internet. Ms. Cade, you have been involved so heavily as we have seen from your resume in Internet governance and Internet policies issues, and your efforts for the IGF have been remarkable concerning different theme, especially those related to positives and negatives of hyper-connect, Honorable security, safety, copyrights, the future of the media and information. Can you please tell us how can we move one step further from online safety, which is actually we are all really concerned about here, to what we are learning about, which is digital citizenship, which is all about using technology appropriately, and how can we, in our emerging knowledge societies, especially in Africa, reconcile the requirements of accessibility and infrastructure with the dissemination of the Internet culture and new concepts of digital citizenship? >>MS. MARILYN CADE: Thank you, Dr. Hoda. I am so pleased to also lend my appreciation to madam Mubarak, to Chairman Kamel, to all of the leaders of Egypt who have been contributing to the spirit here at the 4th IGF and to the concept of what I think about as the emerging culture of the IGF. One of the things that I have seen, as we have been working in the four years in the IGF, is this concept of the evolution of culture. And certainly using the term here in Egypt in a land that is so rich in the contributions that it has made throughout its long history to learning, to education, to science, to medicine, and continues to make, is sort of a rare opportunity for us to say, "What are we doing now to bridge together a world Jovan described as a world which has the digital citizens and the digital migrants?" We heard earlier from Dr. Pepper about the incredibly fast changes that are underway in innovation, and one of the things that we all recognize is for digital migrants, like many of us in this room, we are coming into a new world where we aren't all that comfortable with some of the challenges or perhaps some of the experiences that we're having, and we're often very worried about how those experiences may be affecting our children. And for many of us, since we know that they're much more adept at understanding and using the technology, and even if they don't necessarily fully understand it, they somehow manage to adapt it in ways that are just incredible. So here we are in this new world with digital migrants and digital users, and we're driving toward even faster change, and change where some people are very, very, very cognizant of the risks that may be ahead or are present. We are, I think, really at this stage in our examination of the role of the Internet, it's very important we think about this as a journey, not a destination, and that we think about how we are all involved in preparing for that journey and how we can build together this concept of a culture of shared responsibility. And that means that every individual, whether they are a parent or a schoolteacher, they're a policymaker, they're a judge, they are a laborer, they are working in an office, every one of us has to think about, in the digital world, how are we acting as digital citizens. When we think about our own role and responsibility in the physical world, we often have assumptions about ethics and ethical behavior, but we're now in an environment where we have to be not only translating that into the online world, but thinking about how our children and our youth actually have a different experience than we do, because they're emerged in this world. They don't think of this as the offline world and the online world. They're integrating technology into how they communicate and adapting how they communicate in ways that technology can support. I've been thinking a lot about how different the IGF here in Sharm El Sheikh has been, because youth have been integrated into the workshops and the forums and even the planning -- and I will say led by or inspired by what we knew we would experience in Sharm at the IGF USA, where many of us worked to organize the IGF USA, we felt we just had to have one panel of youth and we learned things from them that has led us to understand that we will have to plan with a lot more youth as we go forward in examining policies and determining questions that are about them. The roles of young people and youth, in so many ways, are reversed in our digital world. And we have to learn to listen to our young people in ways, perhaps, we have not before. So now I'm just going to say something about my experience in looking around the world at the approaches that are being taken, and to note that the Cyber Peace Initiative is a very unique model that integrates, in ways that I have not seen in other countries, the concerns about digital literacy, digital empowerment, capacity-building, the involvement of parents and other caregivers and policymakers and lawyers and judges, and the youth themselves. So I'm particularly interested to go back to thinking about how we develop this and evolve this culture of responsibility for an online world. The unique and important contribution of the IGF here in Sharm El Sheikh has been imbued with the spirit and vision of Egypt's view of how the Internet can empower. So on the journey that I see ahead of all of us in creating and enhancing a culture, I see a role for us to remember, as some of my other panelists mentioned, that we have had all these experiences here, but the beauty of the IGF is that we take back with us an ongoing interaction that will bring us together again in only a year, and to examine the enhancements we've made and that youth will make with us in that culture that we need. >>MS. HODA BARAKA: Thank you very much. [Applause] >>MS. HODA BARAKA: Thank you very much, Ms. Cade. Now, we were talking about technologies, about legal issues, policies, regulations, and then we moved to capacity-building, development, and how, actually, the new young generations will act on the online world, and finally we will come to some risk, so I'll try to make it as positive as I can, and then at the end of the day, there's still some threats and risks and challenges that our young people will find there on the Internet. Mr. John Carr is secretary of the Children's Charities Coalition on Internet Safety. It's actually comprised of all the U.K.'s major professional child protection and child welfare organizations. John was previously the head of the children and technology unit at NCH. The focus of much of John's work is on the digital divide, seeking to ensure all children and young people can benefit from the wonderful opportunities represented by the new technologies. He was also a founding member of the home Secretariat Internet task force on child protection. In 2006, John was named by the new statesmen as one of the 50 modern heroes for his work making the Internet safer for children. Recently, John has produced an additional manifesto, which you would like to know more about, and he was also a supporter of the new ITU resolution establishing a working group on Internet safety. John, you have been very busy, actually, for the last four days, and you were actually speaking in a lot of workshops, sometimes even in parallel, so it's about Internet empowerment issues throughout your life. Your experience, actually, is very well known, but can you please tell us what happened in the last four days concerning especially the issues of Internet safety. We were together in the (inaudible) briefing and a lot of actually debates and discussions were about how to protect our children online. >>MR. JOHN CARR: Thank you very much, indeed, for that introduction, Dr. Baraka, and thank you very much, also, for the opportunity to speak in front of such a large and distinguished audience as this, and particularly in the presence of Her Excellency, Ms. Mubarak, who is well-known within child protection circles and within the children's community for the -- her personal dedication to this issue and the way that she's provided leadership on these issues, not just in the Arab world and in Africa, but also globally. And it's certainly very much appreciated. Like Ambassador Gross -- [Applause] >>MR. JOHN CARR: Like Ambassador Gross, this is also my third consecutive IGF, and I took the trouble before I came here this morning just to check back on the agendas of the two previous IGFs, and I think my first one in Brazil, there were -- I couldn't find a workshop that was specifically addressing the issues around children and young people's use of the Internet. There was certainly more in Hyderabad, but to this IGF, there has been a proliferation -- well over a dozen different workshops -- addressing issues of children and young people's use of the Internet, the threats, the promises, involving hundreds and hundreds of different people and, in particular, involving young people speaking for themselves and giving us their qualitative insights into some of the issues that we older folks think we know well enough. And the Net Amans -- and I must say, Nevine Tawfik, who is now a well-known personality all over the world, and the Net Amans, I've met them everywhere, on all continents, it seems, and their work also with Childnet International has been extremely good at bringing to an audience a kind of sense of reality, a reality check about some of the issues that we often talk about and assume we all understand perfectly when I'm afraid we don't. But why are we interested in -- in this issue? We're interested in, I think, for two different -- quite different sets of reasons. Of course our children are probably the things that we love and care about most of all. More than -- more than life itself is how most parents feel when you ask them how they -- when they feel about their children. They're also our future, the planet's future. I hope they're going to be around to help with the pension fund that I'm developing as well. But also, there are questions of legal rights that are arising here. The U.N. convention on the rights of the child, a very important international treaty which I think almost every single country represented in this room is a signatory to, including its optional protocol on child prostitution, child pornography and trafficking, enshrines a number of legal rights. Children have a legal right to be protected by the state, by the authorities in a given country, so it's not simply that we want to be nice. Of course we do. But children also have a set of legal rights that the international community has proclaimed through the U.N. declaration on -- convention on the rights of the child, which incidentally has its 20th birthday this Friday. So there are those legal aspects to it as well. There are also other excellent legal instruments that many, many countries have signed up to are mentioned in particular, the Council of Europe's Convention of Cybercrime. And more recently I have been engaged with the ITU on their child online protection initiative. Again, from a child protection perspective, this was a fantastic development. Here was a major global player, a major global institution not just talking about the issue of child protection but actually developing concrete resources that it's published and it's making available to governments and to industry across the world. And it also -- I don't know how many of you are aware of this yet, but it also conducted a survey amongst 191 member states within the ITU asking individual governments what they -- what their perceptions were about the priority issues in the field of child protection and child safety on the Internet. Over 80% of the governments that replied to the survey agreed that exposure to illegal and harmful content and bullying were the number one issues, the number one issues of concern in their countries for child protection in the online space. Over half of the countries that replied did have programs that worked in schools, with children, to try and teach them about cyber citizenship and this responsibility that we're all very much in favor of. But the point about that, over half did, but nearly half didn't. So -- And again, the survey asked what programs and materials were available specifically directed at parents and at teachers, and nearly half, or around half of all of the countries that replied said, at least the people replying to the questionnaire were not aware of any resources of that kind in their countries that could be used in their school. But they all agreed there was a great thirst for help, knowledge, information that they could use locally to help develop this digital citizenship, this digital culture that we're all so very much in favor of. Now, Dr. Baraka intimated in her introduction that I am often the person who says the things that people don't like hearing. And I have to -- I am not going to disappoint you. I am definitely not going to disappoint you on this occasion, because you do get a sense sometimes, when you go to these events, that we're all congratulating ourselves on how wonderfully well we are doing and isn't the world a better place for the fact that we are here and talking like this. Actually, when you look at the Internet in particular, our view, from a child protection perspective, is that not enough progress has been made fast enough. And I am going to just take one example because it's one that we care about very deeply. Child abuse images. Some countries refer to it as child pornography. Some countries have taken great steps forward in blocking access to known illegal Web sites. In other words, we're not talking about trying to find this stuff. We're talking about places where we know that illegal images already exist. But if you were to add up the number of countries that were doing it, I doubt it would come to more than 20. And yet it is open to the Internet industry to deploy these types of technical measures to block access to these sites. Why aren't they doing it? Why aren't more ISPs, why aren't more electronic service providers using now tried and tested methods to block access to the most horrible images that abuse the children and pose a threat to other children? I work with organizations who provide psychotherapeutic support to children who have been raped and who have been sexually abused and whose images have appeared on the Internet. One of the things that the children say in the course of their therapy, in the course of the intervention that they are helping and the support that they are getting is the thing that they now worry about most is the thought that those images are being seen time and time again. Every time that image is republished and reappears on the Internet, it's a way of re-abusing that child. They cannot know, they do not know who might have seen those images. It could be their next-door neighbor, it could be their teacher, it could be their future employer. So it's not just that we want to be nice. This is a genuine need that children who have been abused articulate to their therapist, to their social workers. And what's important to understand about that is that we have the technical means at our disposal to deal with it very substantially, at least insofar as the Web is concerned. There are issues around encryption, there are issues about peer-to-peer, there are issues around other new technologies which are emerging, but in relation to the Web, we know how to deal with this problem. We can do it and the industry is not doing it. And as far as we are concerned from a child protection point of view, talking about shared responsibility, talking about developing a sense of digital citizenship is all very well, but that must include the industry as well. It isn't all down to parents. It isn't all down to teachers to take the necessary steps to make the Internet better for children. Industry has to step up to the plate as well. I'm sorry for introducing that discordant note but I was told to be frank and honest, and that's what I wanted to do. Thank you for listening to me. [ Applause ] >>MS. HODA BARAKA: Well, Mr. John, I kept you to the last. I tried in the introduction to make things a little bit positive. But definitely we reached our end for our international panel for today in this session. And I was really very proud that in this same hall in September 2007, I was attending actually Her Excellency Mrs. Mubarak's first International Youth Forum. And this youth forum was actually about you speak and we listen. And today, in 2009, after two years, we are coming back in this same hall with Her Excellency also attending with us, and her auspices. All the workshops that we have done in the IGF, listening to the voices of teens, that we have started already in 2007. And we are always here to continue to support our young generations and our young children, to empower them and to support them, and to develop their capacity to be our future leaders. Thank you very much, distinguished panelists. [ Applause ] >> Your Excellency, Mrs. Mubarak, ladies and gentlemen, the Cyber Peace Initiative of the Suzanne Mubarak Women's International Peace Movement was, since its inception, a model for public-private-social partnership. We have a firm belief that youth empowerment, innovation and safety can be achieved only in cooperation with other organizations, and in a true spirit of shared responsibility. Today, we are proud to be signing in the presence of Your Excellency and at the IGF 2009 four new partnership agreements with a number of key organizations and multinational corporations. The first agreement is with the Family Online Safety Institute, FOSI, and the agreement will actually commit us to work together to promote digital citizenship in Egypt, the Arab world, and wider international community. I would like to invite Mr. David Miles, director Europe, Middle East and Africa, to come to the stage. [ Applause ] >> Our second partnership agreement today with the major multinational corporation, IBM. IBM will join our efforts by availing training, capacity building, content development in Arabic. Engineer Amr Ghoneim, general manager of IBM Egypt, please join us. [ Applause ] >> Our third agreement today, is with the founding partner of the Cyber Peace Initiative, Microsoft. Today we explore together a new area of cooperation, the establishment of a national center for online safety in the framework of the 2CENTER project, the cybercrime centers of excellence network for training research and education. I would like to invite Mr. Ayman Abdel Latif, general manager, Microsoft Egypt, to the stage. [ Applause ] >> Last but not least, we are happy to have Oracle joining the Cyber Peace Initiative through the joint development of an online learning project on the subject of global citizenship. Engineer Hussein Hamza, general manager of Oracle Egypt, please join us. [ Applause ] >> I would also like to call upon Dr. Hoda Baraka, First Deputy to the Minister of Communication, Information Technology and Mrs. Aleya El Bendari, founder and member of the Suzanne Mubarak Women International Peace Movement for the signing of the memoranda of understanding. [ Applause ] >> Your Excellency Mrs. Mubarak, Dr. Tarek Kamel, Mr. Sha Zukang, may I invite you to witness the signing, please. [ Applause ] (Signing documents) [ Applause ] >> Your Excellency, ladies and gentlemen, the final part of our honorary session today, we celebrate the efforts of young people who have excelled in the service of their peers and the international community using ICT and the Internet. Her Excellency Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak will be presenting a certificate of recognition. The first certificate of recognition will go to the youth Internet safety focus group, the Net Aman founders, in recognition of their role in disseminating the safety message throughout Egypt. Ahmed Rashad will be receiving the certificate on behalf of the group. [ Applause ] >> The second certificate will go to an organization well-known for its distinctive role in knowledge generation and special teaching methodology on Internet issues for young people, to DiploFoundation. Jovan Kurbalija on behalf of Diplo. [ Applause ] >> The third recognition will go to the U.N. GAID committee of e-leaders for ICT and youth in recognition of its special efforts in engaging the young talents in the field of ICT for development. I would like to call upon Natasha (saying name), (saying name), and the committee's chair, Mohamed (saying name). [ Applause ] >> Your Excellency Mrs. Mubarak -- I think we will take a collective photo. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Your Excellency, Mrs. Mubarak, thank you for honoring us with your presence today. Ladies and gentlemen, please join me in thanking her excellency Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak. [ Applause ] >> Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. This concludes our honorary session. The next session will start immediately. Thank you.