Taking Stock and Looking Forward – on the desirability of the continuation of the Forum - Part 1

18 November 2009 - A Main Session on Other in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt

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	Note: The following is the output of the real-time captioning taken during
	Fourth Meeting of the IGF, in Sharm El sheikh. Although it is largely accurate,
	in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or
	transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at
	the session, but should not be treated as an authoritative record.

	Taking Stock and Looking Forward - On the Desirability of the Continuation of
	the Forum, Part I
	 18 November 2009
	 Internet Governance Forum
	 Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt
	 
	  [ Gavel ]
	 >>MARKUS KUMMER:   Ladies and gentlemen, please be seated.  Please be seated. 
	Under-Secretary-General Sha would like to start the stock-taking session.  We
	are delayed somewhat, but now we would really like to get on.   Please be
	seated.
	 We also ask that those who have requested a speaking slot sit in the front row
	so they don't have a long way to go to the rostrum.
	 List of speakers will be available on our screen so each speaker will know when
	he is next.  And I would also request that the speaker who is next come up on
	the stage and sit in the chair behind the rostrum.
	 [ Gavel ]
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, may I request you, all
	of you, to take a seat.  We have to begin our formal consultations.
	 Because so many people are standing there.
	 I am already late, because I escorted the First Lady out and I have difficulty
	from coming in.
	 Ladies and gentlemen, can I ask, request you to take your seat.
	 Okay.  Thank you.
	 I try to understand why so many people are standing, making noises behind you,
	and I was told that for security reasons, many of them cannot go out.
	 [ Gavel ]
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   This meeting of the IGF is really unique now.  I am deeply
	impressed by this uniqueness.  And it's so unique that many of you have to sit
	and many of you have to stand behind, making noises.
	 I am not yeoman anymore.  It is my first experience.  I can tell you, I had
	freedom going out and no freedom to get in.
	 Sorry for this.  I know I am not pleasing.  I am offending everyone, which I do
	not care at all.
	 Gentlemen, Excellencies, now we are gathered here to discuss the future of IGF.
	 As you are all aware, head of state and government in Tunisia in 2005 gave IGF
	a provisional life span of five years.  The Tunis Agenda specifically called
	upon the Secretary-General of the United Nations, I quote, "To examine the
	desirability of the continuation of the forum, in formal consultation with
	formal participants, within five years of its creation.  And to make
	recommendation to the United Nations membership in this regard," end of quote.
	 In the last few days, we have heard of some clear views on the issue of our
	extension of the mandate of IGF, starting with the Prime Minister of Egypt.  But
	let us be open and honest and recognize that not all positions and views are so
	easily expressed, nor so quickly understood.
	 Today's consultation will be a formal one, focusing only on the examination of
	the desirability of the continuation of the forum as is called for by the
	mandate indicated in the Tunis Agenda for the Information Society in paragraph
	72, 73, and 77.
	 We will have a series of speakers representing various stakeholder groups who
	have asked in advance for a speaking slot.
	 This meeting has been prepared through a consultative process, both in physical
	meetings in Geneva and here in Sharm El Sheikh, as well as through our online
	process.
	 The result of the online process has been reflected in the synthesis document
	prepared by the IGF Secretariat.
	 This document has been translated into all six U.N. languages and can serve as
	input to our discussions.
	 In my opening address, I encouraged you again to discuss further through my
	three questions and to participate fully in today's meeting and to share your
	views.
	 In the past few days, I consulted widely, and by now I have a better
	understanding of the positions of some of the stakeholders in attendance.
	 However, it is today's discussion that matters most in this formal
	consultation.  And I can only repeat what I said on the opening day.  If you
	believe the forum is valuable, I would encourage you to say so and tell us in
	what ways.
	 If you believe it can be improved, I would encourage you to say that, too, and
	tell us how.
	 If you believe that IGF has fulfilled its purpose, I would encourage you to
	speak out against an extension of the mandate and tell us why.
	 Later, I will report to the Secretary-General.  He will then make
	recommendations in his report to the General Assembly next year, taking the
	openings expressed in these consultations into account.
	 I'm sorry not everyone who asked for a speaking slot can be accommodated today,
	and I appreciate your understanding.  But we are limited to three hours. 
	Actually, we have less than three hours.
	 All written statements sent to the IGF Secretariat by the end of today will be
	included in the formal consultation.
	 Speakers today should speak for maximum of three minutes.  I would appreciate
	if you take even less than three minutes.  I feel shy to say that.
	 The session is split in two parts, from now to 1:00, actually we have one hour,
	starting again after lunch from 2:30 to 4:00.
	 Originally, I planned to ask Mr. Markus Kummer to introduce the synthesis
	document; however, I will skip this introduction as this document has been made
	available online.
	 As the Secretariat, we should lead by example in order to give more time to
	you.  In return, I hope that you will respect the time limit as well.
	 Without further delay, I now open the floor.
	 I will first give the floor to Bob Kahn, the CEO and the president of the
	corporation for national research initiative.
	 Mr. Kahn.
	 [ Applause ]
	 >>ROBERT KAHN:  Thank you, Mr. Chairman, for the opportunity to address the
	forum.
	 I know that there have been many different hopes and expectations for the IGF,
	but in one fundamental aspect, I believe that the IGF has been quite successful,
	and that is by providing a means for discussion of issues and exchange of views
	by individuals and organizations from all over the world.
	 And I'd like to publicly acknowledge the role that both Nitin Desai and Markus
	Kummer have played in shepherding the process from the beginning.  I think
	that's been one important reason for its success.
	 The IGF has provided a neutral venue in which important Internet issues can be
	discussed, not only in the sessions but by the personal contacts in the halls
	and in between the sessions.  I believe they are an integral part of the forum.
	 I believe the IGF plays an important and valuable role, and it should
	definitely be continued.
	 It's particularly interesting to me, however, because I never expected to see
	the Internet, which began as a small research project, take on such hold in so
	many countries around the world.
	 I have one specific recommendation to make, which is that in the future, in
	addition to dealing with the issues that arise in these deliberations or that
	arise through the many preforum consultations, that a focus be put on developing
	issues and approaches in certain specific subareas of interest to the
	participants now and in the future; that we have not only a general area, but
	that we also have several topical areas at each meeting so that it will be
	possible to attract a broader community of interest than have currently been
	participating in these meetings.
	 I think the IGF cannot and should not attempt to address every possible area,
	but I think it can help to move the discussions forward by addressing a broader
	set of potential areas that are now being addressed.
	 So I look forward to participating in future IGFs, and I strongly urge that the
	IGF be continued.
	 Thank you very much.
	 [ Applause ]
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   Thank you.  Next, Vint Cerf, the vice president and chief
	Internet evangelist, Google.
	 >>MARKUS KUMMER:   Is the video ready?
	 >>VINT CERF:   I am Vint Cerf, I am Google's chief Internet evangelist.  I wish
	I could be with you at the Internet Governance Forum in Sharm El Sheikh, but
	unfortunately, I had conflicting meetings that I couldn't resolve.
	 But I do appreciate this opportunity to speak to you this morning specifically
	about the future of IGF and the agenda that I hope that you will pursue.
	 The Internet Governance Forum has been a remarkable assembly of people deeply
	concerned about the Internet and its use on a global scale.  What I think we all
	recognize now is that there is enormous utility in this system.  The information
	that's accumulated on the World Wide Web has proven to be extremely valuable.
	 On the other hand, I think we also recognize that there are abuses of the
	Internet which we really must attend to.
	 These abuses range from annoying things like spam to much more serious
	problems, fraud and other kinds of abuse that take place.
	 I think that the Internet Governance Forum is an ideal setting in which to
	raise issues along these lines as well as issues related to cooperation for the
	improvement of electronic commerce.  For example, decisions about the legal
	significance of the digital signature so that we can conduct contracting
	activities and have a mutual understanding of the enforcement of these contracts
	that have been signed digitally in cyberspace.  If there are disputes between
	parties, it's important that we have intergovernmental agreements about the
	enforcement of the provisions, contracts that are so executed.
	 But to come back to this other problem of abuse on the network, I think we all
	recognize that a party which is abusing someone on the Internet might be in one
	country and the victim in another.  The only way that we are going to deal with
	such international difficulties is to have a more common framework in which we
	agree as to the activities that are considered to be societally unacceptable. 
	And here I believe the Internet Governance Forum can play a very important role
	in surfacing different views of these kinds of them, and perhaps allow us
	collectively to discover venues in which these matters might be best resolved.
	 The Internet Governance Forum itself is not a decision-making activity. 
	Although some people have criticized that, in my honest opinion, this lack of
	decision-making is what makes the Internet Governance Forum such an important
	activity for all of us.
	 It's a place where all sides can be exposed.  It's a multistakeholder activity.
	 We get inputs from the technical community, from civil society, from
	governments, from the private sector, all of which inform us about the problems
	we face and the possible solutions that might be available to us.
	 This nondecision-making effort allows many of the opinions that might be in
	conflict with each other to be heard, and it am allows many of us to come to
	some conclusions about constructive steps forward.
	 So I would urge all of you, if you are considering the question of continuing
	the Internet Governance Forum, to take a very positive view, to participate in
	and to continue to support these meetings that take place annually, and use it
	as a tool for making the Internet a better, safer, and more effective place in
	which to conduct our global affairs.
	 So I again apologize for my inability to be with you at this meeting.  You will
	have to put up with virtual Vint for at least this event.  But I'm looking
	forward to seeing you next year in 2011.  In the meantime, I will see you on the
	net.
	 [ Applause ]
	 >>SHA ZUKANG:  Thank you.  I'm not sure whether Mr. Vincent can hear my -- what
	I say.  Anyway, now, next I give the floor to H.E., the minister for information
	and communication from Kenya, Mr. Samuel Poghisio.  Please.
	 >>SAMUEL POGHISIO:  Ladies and gentlemen, after four years of IGF, it's now
	time to reflect on what we have achieved so far and the future of this forum.
	 As we deliberate on the five-year life span, whether it's adequate or not, it's
	important for us to think of the need for continuation of this coordinated
	mechanism to harness contributions from all Internet stakeholders.
	 Kenya has established the process -- this process at a national level and has
	also pioneered the same at the subregional and regional level, and we've found
	the following.
	 A, that with inspiration of the national IGFs, we are able to identify local
	level Internet governance issues that then form the building blocks for the
	regional level.  The East African Internet governance forum, which is now on its
	second year.
	 And B, the following, that the level of sensitization of various Internet
	governance issues is now high.  We are now very much aware of the governance
	issues from management of critical Internet resources, more specifically
	strengthening our country's code top level domain, ccTLDs, to develop the
	strategies for handling cybercrime and creating universal, affordable access to
	ICTs.  This has been an important lesson for us, and we see an even better
	opportunity in the future.
	 We support the extension of the IGF and particularly the multistakeholder
	processes underpinning it, and we believe it is important for us to continue the
	constructive discussions and the debates and open exchange of ideas.  However,
	there are a number of things that we may want to see changed.
	 One, allocation of adequate resources to IGF Secretariat and its ability to
	function.
	 Two, the support for regional and national IGFs, with clear mechanisms of
	inclusion and integration of the global IGF.  The EA IGF which is the East
	African IGF wishes to contribute and impact on how the IGF could achieve more
	practical and useful outcomes growing from local and regional lessons.
	 Provisions of deep analysis of discussions on thematic areas to provide a
	framework.  This will not -- this will not only allow for broad and structured
	discussions but also harness the potential for all to get value out of our
	process.
	 Lastly, Kenya is proud to be hosting the ICANN 2010 Africa meeting in Nairobi
	in March 7th through 12th and we look forward to hosting you all at the 2011
	IGF.  I thank you.
	 [Applause]
	 >>SHA ZUKANG:  Thank you, minister.
	 Now, next I will give the floor to Mr. Tulika Pandey.  Mr. Rajesh Chharia, the
	president, Internet Service Providers Association of India.  You have floor,
	sir.
	 >>RAJESH CCHARIA: Thank you, chair.
	 Ladies and gentlemen, we are here for deciding the IGF.  IGF, what we think is
	very important.
	 IGF is important because it represents a multistakeholder consultation process
	necessarily have a formal mandate.
	 These inputs are critical for the balanced growth and management of Internet
	resources, not just in countries but across the world.  Not other forum provides
	such a similar opportunity ever.
	 IGF occurs once a year, which is the minimum that we need given the fact that
	the Internet and mobile world is about four to five times faster in terms of
	innovation over the industrial world.
	 Any change in frequency would leave very large gaps and continuity of the IGF
	will suffer.
	 The importance of the IGF to the emerging countries is even more important. 
	For example, India and China already have more than 1 billion mobile users which
	will be the next big Internet users, too.
	 By 2014, this number could reach to 2 billion even, which will be 30% of the
	total world's population.
	 Add to this the rest of the emerging nations such as Egypt and the scale and
	speed at which these technologies are changing and the socioeconomic realities
	would mean that IGF and more such forums should be set up for engaging the
	governments, service providers, technology companies, NGOs, civil societies and
	academicians.
	 What we think should the IGF be continued in the current form?  Yeah.  IGF
	should certainly be held at least once a year, and preferably in an emerging
	country.
	 We should give it an automatic extension of a minimum five years right away.
	 Two small modifications.  First is expand the stakeholders community further to
	bring in health, education, employment, banking sectors since they will next be
	impacted by an ICT, and this way we will be able to connect our rural portion
	also with the Internet, so that a good empowerment will be there.
	 Secondly, the structure of the workshop in a manner that it is slightly easier
	for the participant to choose by combining similar themes and adding the new
	ones.
	 What are the learnings from the IGF?
	 The Internet and mobile revolution which everybody knows is probably the first
	real chance for the entire world to experience democracy in its purest form. 
	The next set of beneficiaries of the Internet are going to be the lower middle
	class and the poor in the merging economies for their stake, and this dialogue
	must continue.  The governments must take the role of facilitating large-scale
	private investment in infrastructure to provide access as a key priority. 
	Technology will automatically follow, fully recognizing that any other sector,
	Internet will have it's illness but which need to be managed.
	 Very close to my heart, a topic which was discussed in earlier IGFs and
	presented in the present IGF in a great manner but to date concrete steps are
	still pending.  That is the online child and woman abuse and pornography.
	 We had talked a lot for curbing this, but practical steps are still pending. 
	In Rio, we discussed about international monitoring.  This is also a big reason
	that the middle income group and the family (inaudible) creates cultural value a
	lot.  Most do not allow their kids to use Internet, resulting in low
	proliferation of the broadband in the developing countries.  All stakeholders
	have the social responsibility to look into this serious cancer of our society
	and take immediate action by inducing the chemotherapy type of action so that
	our future generation, who will be our Internet user and future of our world,
	should remain clean.
	 We should treat this issue apart with any direct --
	 >>SHA ZUKANG:  Time is over.  I'm sorry.
	 >>RAJESH CCHARIA: Thank you very much, sir.
	 >>SHA ZUKANG:  Please give us the rest of your text.  
	 Now, I call on our next speaker, Mr. Felipe Costi Santa Rosa, head of the
	Information Society Division, Brazilian Minister of External Relations. 
	 >>FELIPE COSTI SANTAROSA:  Thank you, Mr. Ambassador.  Ladies and gentlemen, as
	we all know, Brazil is one of the countries that had the honor of hosting a
	meeting of the IGF during its first mandate in Rio de Janeiro in 2007.
	 Our country, including government, civil society, private sector, and academia,
	has been a very active and enthusiastic player in IGF.
	 Either in person or remotely, Brazilians have shown a consistent and increasing
	interest in the IGF.
	 Brazil, as you know, adopts a multistakeholder Internet governance model at the
	national level, and each Brazilian Internet steering committee gathering
	representatives of government, civil society, private sector, and academia,
	plays a key role.
	 The engagement of Brazilian stakeholders in the IGF, therefore, is a
	predictable consequence of the involvement in the same issues at home.
	 This explains why the Brazilian government, as already declared by Vice
	Minister Augusto Gadelha at the opening session of this forum favors the renewal
	of the mandate of the forum.
	 We firmly believe in the multistakeholder process.  Moreover, our own
	experience tells us that IGF can go beyond promoting debate.  It can and should
	provide advice that helps incorporating the World Summit principles in Internet
	governance processes at the global, regional, and local levels.
	 It's our conviction that during its first period of five meetings, the IGF will
	be able to fulfill its mandate and issue guidance, at least on limited set of
	issues, in which displays of convergence can already be noticed.
	 Turning to another point -- turning to another point, as determined by the
	Tunis Agenda, Paragraph 72f, IGF should strengthen and enhance the engagement of
	stakeholders in existing and/or future Internet governance mechanisms.  In
	particular, those from developing countries.
	 This task cannot be carried out, if the existing -- if the existing inadequate
	balance from developing and developed countries in the IGF persists.  By saying
	this, I'm not only referring to the attendance of the IGF themselves but also in
	the participation in the preparatory meetings in Geneva.
	 Summarizing, Mr. Chairman, the Brazilian government fully supports IGF and
	favors its continuation, but in light of our previous observations nonetheless
	we believe IGF can be improved.  Particularly in two areas.
	 One, IGF must have its ability to provide outputs enhanced.  These outputs
	could point to our guidelines and best practice that, though not mandatory,
	should provide for countries, multilateral organizations and the U.N.
	Secretary-General on how to promote cooperation in Internet governance key
	issues.
	 This can be achieved by streamlining its reporting procedures so as to have a
	more user-friendly output that can be brought to the attention of the United
	Nations, relevant international organizations, governments and other
	stakeholders.
	 Two, Mr. Chairman, a renewed IGF ought to become yet more inclusive, being able
	to finance the participation of a greater number of stakeholders from developing
	countries.  In particular, from the LDCs.
	 These can be achieved through different ways.  One is that IGF becomes partly
	financed from within the regular U.N. budget and that to use these new resources
	privately and in a neutral way for the purpose of increasing developing world
	participation.  In any case, as we have requested this, these are just
	preliminary ideas and the Brazilian government remains open to a consultative
	debate on these issues.  Thank you very much.
	 [Applause]
	 >>SHA ZUKANG:  I try to be fair.  Three minutes for all, but the machine went
	wrong, right?  Now, thank you very much.  
	 Next, I will give floor to Dr. Akram Choudhury, member of Parliament from
	Bangladesh.  You have the floor.  You have flee minutes.
	 >>AKRAM CHOUDHURY: Thank you, Mr. Chair.  And let me express my heartfelt
	thanks and gratitude for impacting us -- myself and Hasanul Haq Inu, our head of
	the delegation, for inviting us here to not only participate but also share
	ideas with different very, very involved resource persons throughout the world
	in the field of, you know, Internet.
	 First of all, I also bring greetings from our leader, the leader of the House,
	and also prime minister, Sheikh Hasina, who in 2008, our election campaign,
	developed a manifesto for digital Bangladesh, so this actual meeting helped us,
	you know, get a lot of feedback, to get a lot of ideas so that we can give
	feedback to our movement of Sheikh Hasina on digital Bangladesh.
	 So, Mr. Chair, we feel that more concentration of IGF to be needed for the
	Internet diversity.  We feel that more concentration should be addressed against
	child cybercrime, commercial security and individual security.  Therefore, the
	IGF forum should be continued further.
	 In Bangladesh, considering 300 million people, 150 in the country and 150
	outside the country are speaking in bangla language, so therefore, I, on behalf
	of my people, demand that bangla domain be introduced very soon, and we should
	-- actually the authority of name assignment and number should be -- should not
	be monopolized and it should be democratized.  More participation of the
	Parliament members should be ensured in the next IGF forum.  And there should be
	a separate panel of Parliament members sharing their ideas of how they have
	digitalized their Parliament.
	 There's good news that our speaker, Abdul Hamid yesterday, announced that
	Bangladesh Parliament will be digitalized gradually and all members be given
	laptops to bring it to the House so that they can be friendly to, you know,
	Internet.
	 And --
	 >>SHA ZUKANG:  Your time is up.
	 >>AKRAM CHOUDHURY: Yeah.  Thank you very much.  This actually meeting help us
	to not only -- I mean, the Parliament member be given -- if the Parliament is
	digitalized, then, you know, it will not only make them effective and efficient,
	but also make transparent and, you know, transparent and accountable to the
	people.  Therefore, my recommendation would be next forum there should be
	Parliamentary panel.  Thank you, Mr. Chair.
	 [Applause]
	 >>SHA ZUKANG:  Thank you.  Next I have the floor to Mr. Malcolm Johnson,
	director International Telecommunication Union Standardization Bureau.  Mr.
	Johnson.
	 >>MALCOLM JOHNSON: Thank you, Mr. Chairman.  As you know, an ITU has a
	membership of 191 governments and over 700 private sector entities and
	nongovernmental organizations, many of which have participated here this week.
	 Our membership hasn't discussed the future of the IGF, and will not do so until
	early next, when it can reflect on this IGF and the previous three.
	 However, the ITU Secretary-General and his elected colleagues will recommend to
	our membership to support the continuation of the IGF in its present format for
	the reasons that many speakers have expounded over this week.
	 This is not to say that improvements cannot or should not be made.  The IGF has
	evolved from the first event and will continue to do so.  In particular, the
	number of events running in parallel should, we believe, be drastically reduced.
	 Eight different events starting at the same time is far too many, in our
	opinion.  ITU has itself contributed to this.  We organized 11 events here, but
	we intend not to hold so many events at the next IGF.
	 I'm pleased to say that our events have been well-attended.  We have -- but we
	have seen that in many other events, there's been very small participation, and
	this isn't really fair on the organizers or the presenters.
	 It also means that it's very easy to miss important discussions going on in the
	main session.
	 So why hasn't this been addressed?  Why do we have side events in parallel with
	the important discussions in the main session?  Why not concentrate on one or
	two themes for each IGF?
	 So this leads us to question the effectiveness of the organizing structure,
	including its transparency and accountability.  Thank you, Chairman.
	 [Applause]
	 >>SHA ZUKANG:  You set an excellent example.  You have not even used up your
	time.  Thank you very much.  Next, I have the honor to give floor to Mr. Talal
	Abu-Ghazaleh, the chairman of the global alliance for ICT for development. 
	Talal, you have the floor.
	 >>TALAL ABU-GHAZALEH:  Thank you.  Mr. Chairman, distinguished colleagues, as
	co-chair of the United Nations ICT task force, I enthusiastically promoted the
	establishment of the Internet governance forum.
	 And at the time, I was chairing the U.N. Internet forum in Berlin, November
	2004.
	 I continued to fully support IGF all the way, since its inception, in my
	capacity as U.N. ICT task force, and subsequently as GAID chair, and always as
	TAG Organization chair.
	 TAG Organization proudly served on the United Nations working group, U.N.
	Secretary-General working group, on Internet governance since its establishment.
	 Today, once again, I wish to applaud IGF's success under its able leadership.
	 Mr. Chairman, noting that IGF and GAID are twin brothers born out of the WSIS
	process and in the spirit of support for IGF under the debate about its future
	agenda, I wish to suggest that IGF and GAID have a lot to gain by combining
	their agendas through the development of a creative formula.  There can only be
	added value in such synergy, coordination, harmony, and partnership.
	 Just like ICT and Internet are coherently interlinked, so should IGF and GAID. 
	And of course in the process, in this process, I look forward to losing my job
	as GAID chair.
	 Mr. Chairman, I would appreciate if this statement be considered as part of the
	proceedings.  Thank you, distinguished chair, and distinguished colleagues.
	 [Applause]
	 >>SHA ZUKANG:  Thank you, GAID.  Talal.
	 Next, I'll give floor to His Excellency, Ambassador Ferry Kerckhove, the
	Canadian ambassador to Egypt.
	 >>FERRY KERCKHOVE: Thank you, chair.  Now, at a time when we're welcoming
	multilingualism in the Internet movement, which Egypt has already profited from
	-- and I would thank Egypt for its hospitality -- and Russia as well, I find it
	sad that some delegates here decided that they needed to excuse themselves for
	speaking in their native language rather than in English.  Quite the opposite,
	we should celebrate multilingualism here.
	 [Applause]
	 .
	 >> So I would like to thank -- I would like to make five statements on behalf
	of Canada.
	 First of all, the power -- the transforming power of the Internet has been
	recognized by everyone.  It penetrates all spheres of society's life, at a
	community, international, national level.  It is an essential development
	factor.  And so it makes perfect sense that the instrument of consultation in
	governing the Internet be multistakeholder and unite all aspects of society, and
	this is why this forum has to become a different one than typical management
	forums because it doesn't have decision-making power.
	 We should not change the existing structure, or try to change this IGF into
	something that it is not.
	 We have begun an evolutionary process in which we are adapting to and in which
	each person should find his or her role.  This is why Canada speaks formally in
	favor of continuing this forum for the next five years.
	 When it comes to the debate on the IGF mandate, there should not be negotiated
	outcomes.  The IGF has a multiplicity of outputs with significant impacts on
	Internet governance.
	 I don't deny that for national or international bureaucrat accustomed to the
	rigidities of forms and format, it can appear irritatingly messy.  But we are
	prepared to take a bit of mess in exchange for the extraordinary capacity
	building potential that this forum offers thanks to its multistakeholder
	structure, its flexibility and its transparency.
	 And I am grateful to the fact that the IGF is independent of national or
	international funding or assess contribution and relies on voluntary funding
	from diverse sources, thus adding to its independence from influences other than
	its own.
	 The use of the IGF should not be judged by its structure or its links with
	governmental agencies.  Rather, on the basis of its contribution, its practical
	contributions to the society that Internet is transforming.  For example, on
	issues of security, child pornography, all issues that we discussed here.
	 The Internet is a personal liberating instrument.  It is at the basis of the
	democratic principles that were in the WSIS.
	 It is a grantor of freedom of expression and universality of the rights of the
	person.
	 Canada, just as other countries -- I have one more paragraph, sir -- supports
	the revolution of the Internet on a national level and we understand the role
	that governments are to play in this sphere.  This is why we appreciate the
	principle of reinforced cooperation and the object of this is a clear one.  We
	have the responsibility to contribute to reinforcing access and development.
	 Yes, sir, I shall conclude here.  I will conclude with this.  Canada attaches
	great significance to the importance of the system, and we don't want to
	experiment here with international institutions which want to -- which have some
	political interests.  We have to make sure that the mandate is clear for this
	IGF.
	 Thank you.
	 [ Applause ]
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   Thank you, Ambassador.  Please understand why I stopped
	you.
	 Now, next I give floor fought representative of the delegation of China.  Mr.
	Chen Yin. 
	>>CHEN YIN:  
	Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 
	The Chinese delegation has noted that as mandated by WSIS, IGF
	has conducted productive and effective activities in promoting dialogue and
	exchange among the multi-stakeholders, and will conclude its mandate within its
	five-year life span. We would like to congratulate and appreciate the excellent
	work done by IGF Secretariat, MAG, and all the hosting countries including
	Greece, Brazil, India and Egypt. Meanwhile, we would like to point out some of
	the IGF shortcomings, as described following.
	First of all, the current IGF cannot solve in substance the issue of unilateral
	control of the critical internet resources.
	Secondly, the developing countries are lack of resources for participating in
	IGF meetings, and the priority of development agenda has been downplayed, which
	made IGF lacking of broad representation.
	Thirdly, the issues discussed in IGF have duplicated a lot with the work being
	explored and covered by other UN agencies and international organizations. 
	Therefore, Chinese delegation think, without reform to the IGF as it is, it is
	not necessary to give the IGF a five-year extension. In the meantime, we noted
	that relevant parties, developing countries in particular, hope that internet
	governance issues could be discussed at the U.N. level. We support the views of
	Saudi Arabia and other developing countries in their proposal to set up the
	Enhanced Cooperation mechanism within the U.N. framework. In our view, if the
	mechanism of Enhanced Cooperation needs the extension of IGF for the purpose of
	exchanging views among multi-stakeholders, IGF should carry out reforms in the
	following ways.
	First, the future IGF should, in accordance with the provision of Tunis Agenda,
	focus on how to solve the issue of unilateral control of the critical Internet
	resources.
	Secondly, the representation and voices of the developing countries should be
	increased in the IGF, and the development issue should be placed as the first
	priority.
	Thirdly, we should seriously consider the possibility of incorporating IGF
	financing into the regular U.N. budget, and provide assistance to developing
	countries for their participation in the IGF meetings.
	Fourthly, we should follow rigidly the Tunis Agenda so that the reformed IGF
	should not duplicate the work and mandate of the other organizations.
	Fifthly, a Bureau should be set up with a balanced membership of various parties
	and geographical regions, and its term of reference and rules of procedures
	should be formulated by the United Nation.
	Sixthly, on tenure of the future IGF, we deem it necessary to review the
	extension of the IGF every two or three years.
	In the view of the Chinese delegation, the setting up of a mechanism for
	Enhanced Cooperation with a reformed IGF will effectively promote the global
	Internet governance process and facilitate the achievement of Millennium
	Development Goals.
	Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   Thank you.  I'm sorry, I apologize to the delegation of
	China for this interruption of translation.  Now, next, I will give floor to
	Maria HŠll, deputy director I.T. policy, ministry of enterprise, energy and
	communications from Sweden.
	 >>MARIA HŠLL:   (Representing the EU Presidency)
	 Thank you so much.
	 Mr. Under-Secretary-General, at the opening ceremony, you asked us three
	questions.  First, you asked whether we thought the forum should continue.  The
	answer is yes.  The European Union is convinced that.
	 
	 [ Scribes not receiving English translation ]
	 
	 
	 The multistakeholder format and the IGF is a place for open discussions on all
	issues without binding outcomes or oversight functions.  These pillars are vital
	preconditions for the free and open exchange of views in the IGF.
	 Having no negotiation outcomes does not mean there are no results.
	 You Mr. Chairman correctly stated at the opening ceremony, quote, "While the
	IGF does not have decision-making powers, it inspires the ones who do," unquote.
	 Speaking for the E.U., I can assure all of you that the influence of the IGF on
	the policy-making by the European institutions (inaudible) considerably, and I
	know that this also goes for our colleagues at the Council of Europe.
	 This is exactly what we want, a place for civil society, business, the
	technical community, and governments to engage in dialogue.
	 The IGF has delivered on all issues listed in the mandate as set up in the
	paragraph 72 of the Tunis Agenda.  This is, however, far from saying that the
	job is finished.  On the contrary.
	 The mandate refers to long-term processes which the IGF must continue to
	address.
	 Secondly, Mr. Chairman, you asked whether the forum should be improved.  Of
	course, it could be improved.  The moment, it is in the process of growing and
	maturing.  Every year it develops and gets better.
	 As stated by Mr. Nitin Desai in his speech on Sunday, the forum is made up by
	its participants.  It evolves progressively as the knowledge and experience base
	of its participants develops.
	 This is why it's important to enable and increase participation from developing
	countries.
	 As illustrated by the event with the First Lady this morning, the IGF does
	produce results, and in this case, it has contributed significantly to improving
	child online protection.
	 Thirdly, Mr. Chairman, you asked us whether the process towards enhanced
	cooperation should be a part of the IGF or whether it should be discussed in
	other platforms.  The process to (inaudible) enhanced cooperation is developing.
	 Just think of the environment in 2005 compared to now and you will agree with
	me that the cooperation, indeed, has enhanced and that the IGF plays a key role
	in bringing the relevant parties and issues together.
	 Mr. Under-Secretary-General, the high level of participation and the fact that
	states from all regions have offered to host the IGF shows the value attached to
	this forum by all stakeholders, including governments.
	 If there were no value in this forum, it would not have spun off the national
	and regional IGFs.
	 Mr. Under-Secretary-General, let these facts guide the Secretary-General's
	recommendations and I would lake to end this by saying that the IGF -- sorry,
	that the E.U. looks forward to fruitful and inclusive discussions with the first
	rendezvous at the CSTD in May next year.
	 Thank you very much for your attention.
	 [ Applause ]
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   Thank you, madam.  I was a little bit kinder to the lady.
	 Next I give floor to the representative of UNESCO, Mogens Schmidt.
	 >>MOGENS SCHMIDT:   Thank you very much for giving UNESCO the floor.
	 Mr. Chairman, first let me congratulate you, Mr. Desai and Mr. Kummer, for the
	great leadership you have lent to the IGF process for the last four years.  It
	has been greatly appreciated by all of us.
	 UNESCO has been an active participant in this process from the very outset, and
	let me make that very clear already now.  We look forward to continue to play an
	important role in the, hopefully, extended period for the Internet Governance
	Forum.
	 UNESCO has consistently highlighted that Internet governance must be based upon
	the principles of openness, encompassing freedom of expression, diversity, and
	universality or interoperability.
	 You may even say that it is only openness and universality that can guarantee
	that every citizen in the world over time can benefit from that fantastic
	resource the Internet is for acquiring, for sharing, and for creating
	information and knowledge.
	 Only universal and open technical standards can ensure that diversity and
	pluralism can continue to unfold on the Internet, and that connectedness can
	become truly universal.
	 UNESCO's rich mandate encompassing education, science, culture, and
	communication and information is a useful soundboard for our IGF activities
	within such areas as freedom of expression, linguistic diversity, increased
	access and accessibility, privacy issues, and information and media literacy.
	 Ladies and gentlemen, the IGF has offered a much needed opportunity to the
	international community to discuss all these issues.  And when it has had
	success in actually impacting on existing and changing government structures, it
	is largely due to the fact that the IGF represents a true multistakeholder
	approach.
	 This and the fact that the IGF is, indeed, a forum, a platform for the
	discussion and sharing of ideas, opinions, and experience, has very much
	contributed to its success, and UNESCO strongly supports that the IGF should
	maintain this forum character also in the future.
	 We also very much support that we can ensure a stronger participation from the
	developing countries in the next phase of the IGF.
	 UNESCO is also ready to fully participate in what has been called the enhanced
	cooperation, and this is why UNESCO is right now preparing major agreements of
	cooperation with a number of international organizations like ICANN, as
	mentioned by AGD Khan at the opening here on Sunday.
	 Last month, UNESCO's 103 country strong general conference unanimously made a
	plea for UNESCO to strengthen its involvement in the international debate on
	Internet governance.
	 Please be assured that we will do so next year in Vilnius, and in what we hope
	will be a whole new series of Internet governance fora.
	 Thank you very much.
	 [ Applause ]
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   Thank you, UNESCO.
	 Next I give floor to Mr. Masanobu Katoh from Keidanren, Japan.  So you have
	floor.
	 >>MASANOBU KATOH:   Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
	 My name is Masanobu Katoh from Fujitsu.  I chair international subcommittee of
	ICD committee at Keidanren, the largest cross-industry association in Japan.
	 Keidanren has been involved in IGF activities from the beginning, submitting
	its position papers, attending IGF meetings, and organizing local IGF meeting in
	Tokyo.
	 We found IGF process very important and useful.  Although IGF does not hold the
	decision-making power, open dialogues within IGF undoubtedly influenced the
	future policy and the behavior of government, private companies, and civil
	society.
	 We strongly hope that the IGF process will continue beyond its original mandate
	of five years.
	 We propose continuation of IGF not simply because it is a useful
	multistakeholder forum, but also we have many remaining and new issues to be
	discussed at IGF.
	 For instance, thanks to the development of the Internet and ICT technologies,
	we are coming to the age of cloud computing.  In the cloud environment, people
	do not need to own computers, software, or datacenter.  By accessing a network,
	you can achieve anything you need.
	 This whole world of cloud computing may give a new opportunity to those who did
	not enjoy the benefit of Internet in the past.
	 At the same time, we may have more complicated privacy and security questions
	because of cloud environment.  Because all users and all citizens can become
	creators and providers over the cloud, and (inaudible) the question among all
	participants may become more complicated.
	 Also, in order to enjoy the benefits of cloud computing, we need reasonably
	broadband access.  Therefore, access is still an important issue.
	 We have discussed privacy, security, access, and many other important policy
	issues in the past IGF meetings, but because technology emerges -- I mean
	technology changes at the Internet speed, we need to catch up such development.
	 In conclusion, I want to repeat that IGF has accomplished many things, but we
	have many new issues coming in the future, and, therefore, we need to discuss
	them at the next -- in the future IGF meetings.
	 Thank you very much.
	 [ Applause ]
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   Thank you, Mr. Masanobu Katoh for your statement.
	 Next I give the floor to Mr. Rod Beckstrom, CEO and the president of ICANN.
	 >>ROD BECKSTROM:   Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
	 Thank you, all of you, every one of you, for what you have brought here:  your
	unique contribution to this amazing forum and global dialogue.  It is
	receptional.
	 Thank you, Egypt, for the remarkable event that you have created for all of us.
	 Ours is a small world today.  This world has been made smaller by our
	technological advances.  4,000 years ago, incredible technology was exhibited in
	the pyramids.  They were remarkable in what the reflected for engineering,
	construction and the machinery of the day, and people from around the world came
	here to see it.
	 Many millennia later the telegraph tame and made the world much smaller with
	news spreading instantly.  Then the telephone came connecting human beings with
	voice around the world.  Then the radio came, and we could hear any person speak
	to millions of people arranged around the world.  And then the television came
	and we could see other parts of the world.  And then the Internet came, thanks
	to Bob Kahn, thanks to Vint Cerf and other scientists, and changed the world.
	 First we saw e-mail, just like the telegraph text.  Then we moved to publishing
	with the Web, Tim Berners-Lee showed us.  Then we moved to Skype and phone
	calls.  Now we're moving to video, and now we're moving to something that the
	other electronic forums never had:  social media.
	 And who is leading the way in this revolution?  It is the youth.  We are not
	here to enable them.  We are here to learn from them and to stay out of their
	way as the Internet continues to spread globally, as they teach us so much.
	 So I had a chance to ask the youth what they thought about the IGF, because
	they are not speaking at this dais.  And the comment was, I talked to Anwar, and
	Anwar said, "What I learned was, there were so many different perspectives and
	so much controversy taking place," and he said it was a rich debate but people
	weren't looking at how they fit into the ecosystem or how they fit into the
	system, they were looking at what they could get out of the system.  And so the
	youth perspective was we should learn more about how we can fit in.
	 And then I spoke to Leila and she said it was about learning our
	responsibility, the tremendous responsibility that each of us feels as we're at
	this event.
	 And then I really learned a lot when I spoke to Maha who said the best part of
	the event was the friendship and the community amongst the other participants
	and what has come together.
	 So what I would say is from our perspective, in my organization we have learned
	a tremendous amount from this forum.  Thank you.  We would like to see this
	continue.  Most of the members of the communities that we're involved in are
	extremely positive about this forum.  And most importantly, the youth have said
	they would like to see this continue in their discussions as they were
	consulted.
	 So yes to the future, yes to the youth, and yes to the Internet.
	 Thank you very much.
	 [ Applause ]
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   Thank you, ICANN.
	 Next I will give the floor to the distinguished representative from Saudi
	Arabia, Mr. Abdullah Al-Darrab.  You will be the last speaker for this morning.
	 Please.
	 >>ABDULLAH AL-DARRAB:   Thank you very much, Mr. President.
	 
	 [ Scribes not receiving English translation ]
	 
	 
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   English translation, please.
	 >>ABDULLAH AL-DARRAB: .
	 
	 [ Scribes not receiving English translation ]
	 
	 
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   English translation, please.
	 Now we have it?
	 >>ABDULLAH AL-DARRAB:   Thank you, Mr. Chairman.  Have you got the English
	translation?
	 The summit is now four years old, and the question we are now discussing is
	what has the forum achieved so far.  And when we speak of the future of the IGF
	depends basically on what it has achieved and whether it has fulfilled its
	objective or not.
	 And to answer this question, we have to be very open and very frank.  And each
	one of us should accept the ideas of others and opinions of others very frankly.
	 There is no doubt that the forum in this form, as a forum for discussion, has
	achieved a lot of benefits.  I would like to mention only a few of those
	benefits.
	 It has helped in bringing together all those interested in the Internet and
	bringing them together and to discuss several issues related to the management
	and governance of the Internet:  those stakeholders that represent the
	government, civil society, and others.
	 There is, of course, differences in opinions, just as dealing with the critical
	Internet resources and so on.
	 The forum meetings, for me personally, were an excellent chance for me to meet
	several people from all over the world.
	 In addition to these positive aspects, there are some negative aspects.
	 The participation of the different stakeholders from the developing countries
	is very limited.  There are other observations with regard to mechanisms which
	have been approved in this forum.  For example, whole-day meetings with limited
	periods and limited time in which only the developing countries would
	participate because cost and expenses of coming are very expensive.  And also,
	others should be invited to participate, and the participation of the developing
	countries were very limited and do not reflect the true interest of all the
	stakeholders.
	 Again, this forum should be the arm that helps enhanced cooperation because
	enhanced cooperation has not seen the light until now, although it was supposed
	to start before this forum according to Articles 69 of the Tunis Agenda.
	 And also, we have to know that the enhanced cooperation did not start until
	now, as I said, and it should start with another path other than the path of the
	IGF.
	 I believe that the IGF as it is was a very good experience for all of us, and
	it has also proved that the presence of the forum without the presence of the
	enhanced cooperation, it's like having a person asking a person to run while he
	has only one leg.
	 The most important object of this forum was to help the other countries, which
	is to bridge the digital gap.
	 And if we assess it from in point of view, we shall find that the results are
	not encouraging.
	 I believe the gap is getting even greater.  And I want to say that these
	observations do not undermine the great achievements which have been achieved in
	this meeting.  And I would like to thank, in particular, the Egyptian management
	and organization of this forum.  And to them, I extend my greatest appreciation.
	 Thank you.
	 [ Applause ]
	 >>MR. SHA ZUKANG:   Thank you, Saudi Arabia.  You are the last speaker.
	 Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, we will resume our session at 2:30 sharp in
	the same room.  And the first speaker for the afternoon will be Bill Graham,
	global strategic engagement, the Internet society.
	 So have a good lunch.  2:30 we will meet each other again here.
	 [ Lunch ]