Closing Session

6 December 2008 - A Main Session on Other in Hyderabad, India

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Internet Governance Forum
 Hyderabad, India
 Closing ceremony
 6 December 2008

Note: The following is the output of the real-time captioning taken during Third Meeting of the IGF, in Hyderabad, India. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the session, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 

>>MR. NITIN DESAI:   Can I request people to take their seats.  We are going televised at 5:30 so let's be less chaotic than we are now.
And can I request speakers for the last session to come up.

>> I would call the meeting to order, and I would now call upon Nitin Desai, special advisor to the Secretary-General for Internet governance, and chairman of the Multistakeholder Advisory Group to kindly speak to us.

>>MR. NITIN DESAI:   Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. Chairman, I have already had my say on substantive issues.  I now have the very pleasant duty of thanking a lot of people.
First of all, I have to thank the government of India and the partners to government, Andhra Pradesh, for being perfect hosts.
You are perfect hosts because you have only a single agenda:  How to look after us, how to make us comfortable, how to run this meeting efficiently and how to run this meeting effectively.  And I must say on behalf of all the participants, I would like to convey my deepest thanks to the government of India, the government of Andhra Pradesh, the police force of Andhra Pradesh, the staff of this convention center and the hotel who have really done us proud and looked after us very well.
Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
[ Applause ]

>>MR. NITIN DESAI:   I would also like to thank all the people from the U.N. who have been involved in it.  Yanik and his team of security looked after us in circumstances which were rather difficult and made us feel very safe and secure along with, of course, the excellent support we got from the police force of Hyderabad, Cyberbad to be more precise.
Also the interpreters.  The others, Omar and Daniel who have been running this conference, the two scribes who have even made it to the newspapers here.
I must tell you about the scribes.  Somebody told me, you people have wonderful voice-to-text software.  I said it's not voice-to-text software.  I said it's not voice-to-text software.  There are two people who are actually typing it out there, you see.

 So I really want to thank them for what is an extraordinary job.
[ Applause ]

>>MR. NITIN DESAI:   Above all, I want to thank Markus Kummer who really works like a Trojan throughout the year.  He and Chengetai and the few interns that they manage to get work really hard in order to allow us to do what we do.
The members of the Multistakeholder Advisory Group who voluntarily offer the labor throughout the year, not just during the meeting, in organizing this.  And I truly appreciate their dedication and commitment.  The various chairs who came to this meeting, the moderators, the panelists who find time to be here.
Most of all, I want to thank all of you participants.
The fact that you chose to come here despite the events in Mumbai is itself a testimony to your willingness to show solidarity with the people here.  And equally important, your judgment that participating in this meeting is of some importance.
Nobody comes to the IGF because they are required to come.
There is no compulsion.
Every single person who has come to this meeting has come out of choice.
And I want to say that there hasn't been a serious erosion of numbers.  We have had nearly 1300 registrations, people participating.  We had a few erosion from people of some standing and eminence, ministers, et cetera, who felt a little nervous.  But, by and large, the numbers have not been seriously eroded which is itself a testimony to your commitment, and I thank you for this.
These are just a few words I wanted to say by way of thanks to the very people who are here, to our organizers, to our host, and to all of the people who make the IGF process what it is.
Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
[ Applause ]

>>MR. JAINDER SINGH:  I would now call upon Mr. Art Reilly, Senior Director, Cisco Systems, representing ICC/BASIS.

>>MR. ART REILLY:   Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
Good afternoon Excellencies, friends and colleagues.  I am happy to address you today on behalf of the International Chamber of Commerce Initiative, BASIS, Business Action to Support the Information Society.  
Following WSIS, ICC created this initiative to raise awareness of what business wants and needs to continue our contribution to the development of the Information Society.
Basis comprises businesses and organizations from over 120 countries from a broad range of sizes, sectors, and geographies.
I would like to thank the our Indian hosts and applaud the Indian government for proceeding with the IGF despite recent events in Mumbai.
This year's IGF has been an outstanding success.
For many of us, this has been our third IGF.  I was on the first panel at IGF in Athens where we discussed openness.
I recall the tension and uncertificates that many of us felt then.
The discussions were intense and at times accusatory.  We have come a long way.
As we conclude our time here together, I would like to take a moment to reflect upon why it is that so many of us have traveled from near and far to meet in Hyderabad.
The IGF is unique.
We come here as leaders in our communities who want to voice what is important to us.
In the process, we get a deeper understanding of what is important to others.
The organizational format of the plenary sessions, workshops, dynamic coalitions has been very carefully planned.  It allows candid exchanges among all the stakeholders on an unqualified equal footing.
In his message to us at last year's IGF in Rio, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said that, "This forum is modest in its means but not in its aspirations.
It may have no power to make decisions, but it can inform and inspire those that are in a position to make them."
The IGF is not a series of political statements and proceedings; rather, each participant is equally empowered contributor.
Just consider for a moment the diversity of views that you have heard over the last four days.
What are we accomplishing at the IGF?
Over three years, the IGF has increasingly proven its worth.
Since we first came together, discussions have matured, relationships have been formed and strengthened.
We have seen an increased focus on the issues and a significant reduction in the rhetoric.
You as we make our way home, this week's discussions will remain with us.
We will keep in our minds the experiences and best practices shared as we take them home to our respective communities.
We will continue to build upon the trust and relationships fostered here so that when we gather again next year in Egypt, our discussions will be even more candid.
Concretely, we have been able to come together to elevate such issues as affordable access, the creation of a multilingual Internet and IDNs, free flow of information, the balance of security, privacy, and openness, child protection, and critical Internet resources to name but a few.
Our exchanges are valuable in and of themselves.  Colleagues new to the IGF have expressed surprise to me at the number of considerations identified in our discussions.  And we build on this each year.
We come to the IGF to share ideas and experiences, and we leave with insights and new perspectives to apply back home.
These benefits may not be easy to measure, but there is resonance.
On some of these issues the IGF gives us an opportunity to monitor progress.  IDNs, for example.
The IGF improves our understanding of the role of IDNs and the importance of making them a reality.
By focusing on IDNs, the IGF has also served to advance the dialogue in other forums and increased interest in its success.
The experiences in the next year from the initial implementations will undoubtedly be a source of great interest at the IGF in Egypt.
Beyond the main session exchanges, constructive dialogues and practical skills development sessions are taking place in the workshops.
At the BASIS/government of Finland workshop on digital convergence, we discussed practical examples of how innovation and entrepreneurship are serving small businesses in emerging markets.
Some innovative technologies and business models may seem to introduce challenges.  Nonetheless, innovation is key.
Participants of the workshop used examples to illustrate how innovation could help extend the reach of the Internet and its benefits.
At the IGF we are building knowledge and forging the relationships necessary to move us closer to a more inclusive and people-centric Information Society.
What is next?
To make the most of the IGF, we must continue to take the knowledge gained and build on the relationships formed to make an impact on our regional and local activities.
We have already seen progress in the last year with the introduction of national and regional multistakeholder IGF-related events.
Business believes these initiatives should spread.  We hope to see more emerge in 2009 that will further enrich the global IGF discussions in Egypt.
As the IGF has matured, we have seen lines soften.  You.
Those with seemingly incompatible views have found common ground through greater understanding.
This approach ensures movement on substantive issues and is progress.
Regional IGFs are a way to build on this between now and Egypt.
Business sees no benefit to the stalemates of entrenched positions and wordsmithing on very narrow issues that would occur if the IGF were focused on time-consuming negotiations of a text.  That would greatly undermine the many benefits we have identified.
Over the next year, business will connect another 200 million people or more to the Internet.  Even more will get mobile service for the first time.
All stakeholders must continue to work together to ensure that not only the connected, but those not connected, benefit from the Information Society.
This is the path to realizing an "Internet for All."
Business looks forward to sharing our experiences and lessons learned with you in Egypt and to hearing about your efforts and issues as well.
My special thanks to Nitin Desai, Markus Kummer and his IGF Secretariat team, and the members of the Multistakeholder Advisory Group who have made the Hyderabad IGF a success.
Thank you very much.
[ Applause ]

>> I now call upon Ms. Anita Gurumurthy, executive director, I.T. for Change.
Good afternoon, I am honored to be part of the closing ceremony of the IGF, especially because this is my home country.
The IGF is a unique institution attempting to measure up to the realities of a transnational political community.
As a U.N. forum, it allows people excluded from other spaces and arenas where Internet policies are being shaped to participate equally in the dialogues implicating their own lives.
Ladies and gentlemen, I wish to pull your attention away from the IGF for a moment to reflect upon something else:  The global financial meltdown.
As Jeffery Sachs said recently, poorest countries and people already struggling to cope with the food crisis would highly likely also feel the impact of the global credit crunch through diminishing global aid.
This sobering reality allows us to think of how the economic ideologies and technical logic underpinning global social systems are not phenomena out there.  They are palpable, real experiences of countries, communities, and individuals.
So how can this historic moment inform us at the IGF?
I recall from one of the open dialogue sessions a reference to India as the land of Mahatma Gandhi.
I think Gandhian thought provides a very useful point of departure to take stock of the role and relevance of the IGF, and I quote Gandhi.  "Before you do anything, stop and recall the face of the poorest, most helpless destitute person you have seen and ask yourself, 'Is what I am about to do going to help him?'"
I think we at the IGF have a responsibility to ask, and I take the liberty to modify Gandhi in a spirit that he would have completely appreciated, "How is the IGF going to help the poorest, most helpless destitute woman?"
The Internet as we know it is not just a connector bringing everybody together.  It is also the paradigm that has shifted points of governance farthest from the immediate realities of people.
We have seen this paradox come alive in the discussions of the past four days, in the debates on cybersecurity, access to knowledge, and freedom of expression.
Undeniably, we are a global community, and yet, we do not have the arrangements that are adequate and accountable to the poorest woman.
So, where do we go from here city midpoint in the IGF?
If the IGF is, in fact, about the Internet and development, then it also follows that, as in all areas of development, a rights and citizenship approach be used to discuss policies for the Internet as well.
Civil society actors have felt that one of the steps forward during this IGF has been a concerted effort towards getting a grasp of such an approach.
A starting point in this search for a rights-based approach to Internet governance would be to jettison patronage.  Poor women do not need largesse.  They want rights.
They also don't want experts thinking on their behalf.  After all, technical expertise has not only failed to bail them out of hunger, but as the recent financial meltdown shows, it is likely to also take away the little that would have allowed them to live.  This is not empty rhetoric.
As Mymoena Sharif, manager of e-governance from Cape Town says simply and powerfully, if the city wants to succeed in offering people Internet access, it must be offered free.
Citizens, especially disadvantaged citizens, are not going to spend ten Rand for 30 minutes at an Internet cafe when that money is needed to put bread on the table.
At this midpoint in its career, what the IGF will mean to the poorest woman and her rights will be the singular litmus test for its success.
Thank you.
[ Applause ]

>>MR. JAINDER SINGH:  I now call upon Mr. German Valdez, Communications Area Manager at the Asia-Pacific Network Information Center to kindly speak to us.
MR. GERMAN VALDEZ:  Thank you, Mr. Chairman.  First I would like to join with my predecessor to thank the government for the successful meeting they organized, for your hospitality.  I think we need to thank them.  And I am allowed to say also to the Ambassador Higazy, you are receiving very high standards for the next meeting. 
My contribution this session is based on my personal experiences within the technical coordination organizations in both DNS and IP related activities in the Latin American and Asia-Pacific context.
This third meeting of the IGF shows continuing maturity as the process develops.  In Athens, three years ago, many people were not ready to address some of the controversial issues that we are talking about here in Hyderabad.  For example, enhanced cooperation, critical Internet resources, cybersecurity and cybercrime.
This shows that the IGF is maturing as an effective forum.  It is also evolving in a way that will be unthinkable in a more formal institution.
It is also evolving in a way that would be unthinkable in a more formal institution.  The change in format at this IGF to have open dialogue and debates in the afternoons is an innovation I think has worked.  And I like this new model, this new style of the IGF has developed in this meeting.  After all, the technical coordination organizations like ICANN, ISOC and the RIRs have followed this form of open debates for many years and they have proved the success of this model.
The IGF is also growing in very important ways.  The emergence of national and regional IGF events during this year is really proving to be a robust development.  We have examples of IGF workshops in Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia.  In the particular case of APNIC, we recognize the big value of bringing IGF topic to our own meetings.  We organized this year two workshops in conjunction with ISOC, one in Taiwan and the last in New Zealand, focused on the topic of challenges facing Internet operators in developing countries.  These events have allowed people to understand much better what the IGF is about, share experiences, talk about what needs to be done and how, and then to bring those experiences to Hyderabad.  It means the participants are coming prepared to meet with colleagues, to build networks, and to decide on things they want to do when they take back to home.  The development of this regional knowledge has helped to have more productive sessions this week.
In this sense, we believe that the critical role of the IGF, it is in promoting dialogue and thereby overcoming misunderstandings.  For example, this week we have heard concerns about IPv4 address supply and fears and constraints on Internet growth in the near future.
I want to mention that with around 40 /8s in IANA pool, there is still scope for huge Internet growth in the next three years that unused IPv4 addresses will still be available.  There is not yet an imposed shortage or rationing of IPv4 address space.  And if IPv6 deployment advances rapidly from now on, maybe there will not have to be.
In the case of highly technical matters, line I.P. addressing, DNS, root servers, the IGF has promoted understanding of those issues and promoted interaction of technical and public policy issues.  We certainly don't see these matters as isolated topics or as exclusive province of the technical community.  On the contrary, we do see the need to explore the wider implications of technical activities and decisions and we work with all the stakeholders to explore and address the impacts these activities can have.
We firmly believe that the open, bottom-up, self-regulatory and multistakeholder processes that we use are the best way to keep the Internet growing and stable.  Today, the pace of change is increasing, both because of the technical challenges facing us, and also because of the increasing interest in the Internet.  A good example of the effectiveness of this multistakeholder model used by the technical community is the recent development of a global policy on IPv4.  This global policy addresses the very difficult and complex question of how to distribute the last large blocks of IPv4 space across the world.  The debates on the policy moved from region to region and while the diversity of needs on the Internet realities differed considerably from region to region, the proposal was approved in all the five RIR communities.  The policy is now in final stage just waiting to be sent for ICANN endorsement.
We have gone through a long process since the first meeting under the WSIS umbrella.  Conditions have changed and there is much more willingness from the stakeholders to share experiences, on going work, and engage in work.  We as the technical community welcome the opportunities for the multistakeholder approach of this and future forums.  We commit to bring our experience in technical issues to all the stakeholders now and in the future.  The technical community has in the past listened actively to many stakeholder groups, has recognized the importance of issues such as cultural diversity and as a consequence, we have developed new technologies, such as Internationalized Domain Names.  And as we go forward, we will continue to embrace the concept of enhanced cooperation as it has been implemented by IGF.  However, and in closing, we also assume that and insist that enhanced cooperation must be a living process and that will respond to the needs of the stakeholders and continue to evolve in the future.
Thank you very much.
[ Applause ]

>>JAINDER SINGH:   I now call upon his excellency, Mohamed Higazy, ambassador of Egypt.
Chairman -- Mr. Nitin Desai, distinguished panelists, respected audience, excellencies, ladies and gentlemen.
It is a pleasure to be here with you today at the closing ceremony of the third Internet Governance Forum in Hyderabad on behalf of his excellency, Dr. Tarek Kamel, minister of communications and information technology of Egypt, who, unfortunately, was unable to join your distinguished gathering.
Allow me at the outset on behalf of the government and people of Egypt to convey our deep condolences to the families of the victims of the Mumbai criminal attacks and express our solidarity with India and its great people.
I would like also to extend words of gratitude to our generous hosts for their warm hospitality and congratulate them on the excellent organization of this event.  Our special word of recognition go to chairman Nitin Desai, Mr. Markus Kummer, and all members of the IGF Multistakeholder Advisory Group for their enormous effort in arranging this dynamic, stimulating, and interactive meeting.
With the Internet being always on the top priority of the Egyptian government's agenda, Egypt has been actively participating in the IGF process since its initiation, believing in its potential of the Internet for socioeconomic development as well as the opportunities it brings to individual and the society at large.
Egypt has actively participated in the two phases of the WSIS and was an early member of the Working Group on Internet Governance, WGIG, which initiated the idea of the formation of the IGF.
Before the first IGF meeting in Athens, we took the lead to coordinate an African stance through gathering all African partners in discussing issues of interest and developed coordinated positions.  During each of the IGF phases, Athens, Rio, and now India, Egypt was keen to take part in the different functions of the three forums, partnering with various stakeholders.
Today in Hyderabad, we are witnessing another phase in the progress of the IGF, with the process getting into maturity stage.  It gives me a great feeling of satisfaction to follow the deliberations taking place between partners who all gather with one aim in mind, to shape the cyber world for the benefit of the whole community.  Eventually, the cyber world is not anymore another parallel world to our real one, as everything now that happens online maps itself in our actual day-to-day life, with its positive or negative impact on our lives.
Thanks to IGF, we are all proud to be more capable of understanding the problems that lies ahead, of identifying the challenges and opportunities we have had, and of being more efficient in probing into the Internet issues.
The theme of our meeting here in Hyderabad, Internet for all, mirrors our mature vision and the strong conviction of all stakeholders taking part in this process, that the Internet should be for all.  The theme chosen also underscores our common understanding that this cannot be achieved unless we address the diverse needs of all users, whether from developed or developing nations, whether English or non-English speaking, whether already online or not yet connected, whether adults or youngsters, and so on.
The deliberations over the past four days have exhaustively discussed so many aspects of the overall theme -- Internet for all -- that will, with no doubt, guide the work during the coming year in preparation for the next IGF.  
Heading towards IGF Egypt, we need to build upon our cumulative experience and to learn from the lessons of all past three phases.  This will no doubt require extensive work and increased dedication during the coming intersessional period.
Step by step, we are together witnessing the culmination of the IGF process, which will add another brick in the land of pyramids over the banks of the Nile.
This continuity will be always before our eyes, while shaping the world of today, not only continuity of the process, but also the coherence and the multistakeholder approach which we should always abide by.
With the start of the IGF evaluation process, the fourth meeting of the IGF in Egypt is foreseen as an important milestone.  Although it is never easy to define success, I believe the success of this process should not be measured only against its mandate.  We should carefully examine the impact IGF has produced in the broad area of Internet public policy-making.  We should appreciate the broader level of inclusion this process has created through greater and diversified participation, both across the different regions as well as across the various stakeholder groups.
For the IGF to continue developing and bearing fruits, we should stress that it remains as a prolific space of exchanging ideas and deepening dialogue among the various stakeholders and should continue to play an important role in defining and shaping decisions made by other relevant bodies.  While shaping our views on how the IGF should evolve, we need to ensure that the Internet will continue to be a tool for development that positively affects and assists people in all aspects of life.  We need to enable society to rely on the innovation offered by this powerful medium to develop their potentials.
The IGF Egypt meeting will continue to stress that both developing and developed countries are equally sharing great responsibilities through their collaborative participation to this historic IGF process.  It will continue to explore and reach best means for getting the citizens of our societies connected and better utilize the Internet and innovate within its space for all our communities to further develop and prosper.
Finally, let me announce to you that next year, IGF meeting is going to take place in the world's famous resort of Sharm el-Sheikh, the city of peace, from the 14th --
[ Applause ]

>>MR. MOHAMED HIGAZY:   -- from the 14th to the 17th of November 2009.  
We look forward to welcoming you all next year in Egypt to add another brick to the IGF pyramid.  
Thank you once again for a very successful and vibrant meeting.  I am waiting to see you all next year in Egypt.
Thank you.
[ Applause ]

>>JAINDER SINGH:   Thank you, Your Excellency.  
Excellencies, participants, I speak on behalf of the chairman of this Internet Governance Forum.  Mr. A. Raja, minister for communications and information technology could not, for many reasons, attend this closing session.  
It has been India's honor to host the third Internet Governance Forum in Hyderabad.
From an esoteric communication network connecting a few researchers in the early 1990s, the Internet has today evolved into the very veritable bloodstream of modern daily life.  It encompasses within its fold information, communication, and transactions in economic, scientific research, development, governance, and other fields.  Almost all areas of human endeavor have, to a greater or lesser extent, been impacted by the Internet.
Amazingly, despite this, its current impact is still a fraction of what is possible.
Progress so far has stirred the imagination of people across the world, battling problems of hunger, poverty, disease, lack of education, and so on, because the Internet has suddenly created avenues for pursuing developmental and economic goals far more efficiently and equitably than was ever possible in the history of mankind.
Sadly, the same potential has align attracted the attention of many of the undesirable elements in societies around the world, making the Internet both a vehicle and a target of criminal minds.
Today, therefore, we stand at a threshold where both limitless opportunities and daunting threats lie ahead.  The challenge is to grab the opportunities and exploit them to the fullest, while containing, if not eliminating, the threats.  It is clear that achieving these objectives would be possible only by concerted and collaborative action by governments, businesses, civil society organizations, and academia.
The IGF as a forum holds great promise as a platform to forge precisely such a grand coalition for universal good.
During the last four days, we have had very fruitful discussions, and with your permission, I would present some closing remarks.
As you are aware, the main focus of this IGF was Internet for all.  The meeting has addressed five main themes:  Reaching the next billion, promoting cybersecurity and trust, managing critical Internet resources, taking stock and the way forward, and emerging issues, the Internet of tomorrow.
As you are well aware, the Internet Governance Forum has evolved from the Tunis World Summit on the Information Society.  In this IGF, we were privileged to have extensive participation and involvement of over 1200 participants from 94 countries, representing government, private sector, civil society, academia, Internet community, and media.
This reflects and reiterates the multistakeholder and democratic nature of the forum.  During the deliberations and discussions in this IGF, participants exchanged their various experiences on the developmental and substantive issues of public policy and governance matters.
This has provided an excellent platform to put across the views and suggestions.  This has helped in moving forward on the issues.  Thus, we can see that the IGF is a continuing process where the issues pertaining to the Internet and affecting its performance and use are deliberated upon.
Our discussions have covered a very broad range of issues related to the growth and governance of the Internet.  A host of challenges and opportunities were identified.  It was recognized that there is a need for collaboration between governments, private industry, and civil society.
In this IGF, we have not only discussed the problems and the opportunities which we had to be addressed, but we have also grappled with the question of the right balance between the role of the markets, the state, and civil society.
What is the role of the state?  What is the role of the private sector?  What is the role of civil society?  The fundamental approach in this IGF has been, how do we collaborate and ensure complementarity instead of working at cross-purposes.
The IGF has held extensive discussions on the main theme of Internet for all.  Nothing could be more important than the ways by which access can be increased to those not yet linked to the Internet.  The Internet is not just about business, but it is also about inclusiveness and empowerment.  And that depends upon access.
There is a need to address the access gap in a multidimensional manner.  This IGF has discussed all aspects of access, from connectivity to affordability, from physical access to real access, and various related issues.
Access was discussed with respect to computing facilities and connectivity, it was also recognized that Internet intermediated services also required to be made available.
Access and multilingualism are intertwined.  We cannot really talk about one without the other.
The challenge of achieving universal access can be realized only if the Internet is made available to people of all languages.  More vigorous strategies need to be put in place to make sure that the required content is produced.  The importance of localization and availability of tools was also discussed.  A key point that was recognized was that, increasingly, online communication is growing in mediums other than written forms.
During this IGF, there was a focus on inclusion of persons with disabilities, so that the required measures can be put into place for making the Internet accessible to them.
Technology experts and also common users are fully aware of the serious and increasing threats to the Internet and the prevalence of cybercrimes.  
The growth of the Internet has created further opportunities for cyber hackers and criminals.
Viruses, spyware, phishing and botnet are hurdles for the future growth of the Internet.
Cybersecurity is becoming more and more complex with every advancement of technology.  It has perhaps become the most serious challenge for all concerned.
There are a large number of actors involved in the prevention and remediation of cyber attacks who need to collaborate and cooperate.  To deal with cybersecurity related challenges, there has to be shared responsibility among all stakeholders.
Global alliances and mechanisms for exchange of information have to be established for ensuring safety, security, and the stability of the Internet.
In our deliberations at this IGF it was felt that the relationship of trust was needed to facilitate discharge of such shared responsibility.
Cybersecurity is the key to users' trust in e-business, e-governance and other online applications.
The openness and trust of users on the Internet needs to be maintained and encouraged.
The fight against cybercrimes, therefore, should be given utmost priority in building not only confidence but also user-centric Information Society.
There were also discussions how each one of the stakeholders has a role to take appropriate action in terms of privacy and openness.
It is well recognized that the IPv4 address space is limited.  The day that no more 32-bit IP network addresses are left will arrive soon.  The new IPv6 architecture is designed to solve this address space problem in an effective way.
It also supports more features such as secure routing, effective security, as well as auto configuration, thereby offering complete mobility.
The need for deployment of IPv6 protocol is real and urgent.  However, because of the huge size and the diverse coverage of the Internet, it may not be practical to expect rapid and complete transition from IPv4 to IPv6.
Co-existence of both IPv4 and IPv6 must be managed in a practical and simple way for enabling a speedy migration.
The management of the root servers, Domain Name Systems, interconnect protocol and other interconnection points requires the cooperation of all stakeholders.
It would seem that there was no clear shared vision of what enhanced cooperation means and how this has to be worked out.
There is, therefore, a need to have a continuing dialogue regarding the management of critical Internet resources in order to ensure continuity of a secure and stable Internet infrastructure which has now become essential not only for the economies and security of the developed world but also to enable merging and developing economies to meet their development goals more effectively.
In this context, we see that the dialogue itself serves a very useful purpose, and it brings together diverse stakeholders who do not ordinarily meet at a single forum.
We also observed that this dialogue has shown the potential to bring greater clarity on the structures that would enable and facilitate the kind of collaboration needed.
The global Internet has thrown up immense opportunities for social benefit as well as extreme challenges in harnessing these opportunities.
Governance of such an entity poses challenges for technology, content and behavior management, coupled with an enhanced understanding of security in all its dimensions and the various aspects of privacy.
On behalf of the people and the government of India, I express gratitude to all of you for coming to Hyderabad and for participating in the third Internet Governance Forum.
By being here in spite of the terrorist acts in Mumbai, you have demonstrated your solidarity with the people of India in facing this menace.
I would like to thank you and convey that your presence here means a lot to us.
I would also like to thank Mr. JOMO assistant Secretary-General of affairs of the United Nations for his personal contribution to IGF 2008.
I am sure you will of you will join me in thanking Mr. Nitin Desai, Mr. Markus Kummer and the staff of the United Nations who not only prepared so carefully for the IGF but also ensured the smooth and successful conduct of this IGF in Hyderabad.
I would also like to recognize the unstated support given by the Internet community in India.
Thank you very much to all of you.
[ Applause ]

>>MR. JAINDER SINGH:   The meeting is now concluded.

>>MARKUS KUMMER:   Ladies and gentlemen, please remain seated.
We will now show a video at the request of the government of Egypt presenting next year's venue.
And while the video is being prepared, I can also say that the chairman's summary.
(lost audio).
[ Applause ]

>>MR. JAINDER SINGH:   The meeting is over.  Thank you.