Opening Session

12 November 2007 - A Main Session on Other in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Full Session Transcript
Note: The following is the output of the real-time captioning taken during the
 The 2nd Meeting of the IGF.  Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it 
 may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. 
 It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the session, but should 
 not be treated as an authoritative record.


 [ Gavel ]

 >>SÉRGIO REZENDE:   We call this session to order.  We are already late.  We
 have to catch up.  But I have to say a few words. I chose to say very few words
 in the opening session, and chose to speak a little bit in more detail in this
 section here. So I speak for about ten minutes, but then we have several
 speakers, and I am asking the speakers to be short.  Otherwise, I will not be
 able to finish on time. The Brazilian government authorities are honored to
 host the second Internet Governance Forum, the IGF. It's an honor and a
 pleasure to welcome you to this beautiful and hospitable city of Rio de
 Janeiro. To host people from all over the world here to discuss and exchange
 experience on the issues relating to this great recent conquest of mankind, the
 Internet. As you all know, ladies and gentlemen, this forum, organized by the
 United Nations, is a legacy of the two phases of the World Summit on the
 Information Society, held in two parts, in Geneva and in Tunis, where Brazil
 was an active participant. This world summit was convened by the United Nations
 general assembly, with the essential purpose of setting guidelines for
 information and community technologies to be able to make a decisive
 contribution to achieving the millenium development goals. The millenium
 development goals seek to meet the basic needs of promoting the development,
 freedom, and human dignity and to eradicate human poverty. The IGF has a
 mission to discuss and find ways to ensure that Internet can be a tool for
 meeting the principles and commitments of the Tunis Agenda, to build an
 Information Society which is inclusive, human centered, and geared to
 development. Access to effective use of Internet and information technologies
 are an essential factor for societies to achieve competitiveness and to develop
 their nations. These instruments provide a new paradigm for social
 organization, which has been called the Information Society. And contribute
 significantly to social, economic, and cultural development for all peoples.
 Internet has tremendous potential for promoting a global partnership for
 development as advocated in the Millenium Development Goals. However, if this
 global communications environment is to be effective, Internet requires the
 participation of all peoples. The basic characteristics of the Internet, the
 essence, if you like, is cooperation, access for all to an agreed common
 communication protocol, interconnection between regional networks, to create a
 network of networks, and to share the information in these networks. Without
 the spirit of sharing, of connectivity, of mutual support, Internet will lose
 its strength as a way of promoting global development. We will lose an
 opportunity to communicate between nations, we will lose the support for
 information and communication services and technologies. Lastly, without the
 participation and cooperation of all, the Internet cannot be sure nor stable.
 That's why we defend Internet governance that is representative and balanced. 
 Balanced in terms of countries and regions, but also balanced in terms of the
 different sectors of society. We stand for a type of governance which is not
 the preserve of any particular country's government. Equal treatment for all
 nations is a pre-condition to building global confidence in the functioning of
 the Internet, and thus promoting the sustainability of Internet. Despite its
 localized origin, starting with the development of ARPANET for the scientific
 community in the United States, initially, subsequently a global network,
 Internet is the result of many, many revolutionary contributions made by
 various individuals and bodies from different countries.  Some of them are
 here. With the advent of effective navigators and the World Wide Web, Internet
 has spread to all sectors of societies, to all countries.  It has become a tool
 used by all of us to exchange messages, to gain access to information through
 the use of effective, efficient research engines. It is also a tool for remote
 education, for e-trade, for e-government.  And lastly, it is a way in which
 people, entities, businesses and governments communicate with each other,
 cooperate and carry out financial and commercial transactions. The Internet is
 essential for the growth of the individual and for the growth of nations.  It
 requires a participation, cooperation of all. It is a universal good of public
 interest. As such, governance needs to focus on this public goods aspect and
 needs to be focused on the development of the human individual, and must be
 focused on building a more just society on our planet. Education is today
 largely recognized as fundamental to development for people and nations. 
 However -- And everyone calls for the universalization of that education.  We
 need to recognize that Internet is an effective tool for communication and the
 information technologies also promoting universalization. The digital divide
 that exists today needs to be eliminated because it is a factor which increases
 disparities in levels of development among countries with the tragic
 consequences we are all aware of. Digital inclusion is an essential objective
 to build a more just and more harmonious world. The developing countries --
 Sorry, the developed countries whose people, for the most part, do have
 computers, have access to the Internet, the developed countries must contribute
 to digital inclusion programs for the poor countries. And the developing
 countries must intensify their efforts to expand the use of computers and to
 allow people to have access to Internet. In Brazil, the government of President
 Lula has made great progress to that end. The Computers for All program has
 resulted to a significant drop in the cost of personal computers which has
 allowed less well-off families to acquire computers and has considerably
 expanded the market for computers. This year, about 10 million PCs will be made
 in Brazil. We also have digital inclusion programs.  These programs seek, by
 2010, the end of the current government's term, to ensure that 140,000
 government schools have access to Internet, most of them through a broadband
 connection. This forum in Rio de Janeiro is one of the four fundamental
 subjects which will be discussed here on access, diversity, openness and
 security. This IGF will also discuss the vital subject of the use of Internet
 resources and the administration of those critical resources. We also believe
 we need to discuss here how critical resources of the Internet, including
 administration of domain names and numbers, can be managed in a coherent way in
 keeping with the principles of Tunis. The governance of Internet must be
 structured in order to meet these needs without in any way jeopardizing the
 efficiency of the Internet with a view to finding quick solutions to urgent
 issues which is required in order to keep up the dynamism which is the
 characteristic of the development of the Internet. In addition to these core
 resources, then, there will also be discussion of other issues here for the
 first time, emerging issues such as incentives and competition and content
 production. Let us ensure access to knowledge as one of the objectives to be
 achieved.  In this sense, the Tunis Agenda seeks more recognition of the role
 that can be played by open systems and alternative licensing schemes to promote
 digital inclusion and the construction of a virtual environment, a
 collaborative environment that promotes development.  On the preservation and
 promotion of cultural diversity, this is of fundamental importance for
 universal acceptance of Internet.  We attach great importance to the
 development of a charter of Internet rights. The development agenda adopted by
 the United Nations, by the World Intellectual Property Organization October
 this year, is an innovative way of reorienting the discussions on intellectual
 property. Security, without any doubt, is a concern and also a challenge for
 all of us. This is a subject which needs to be discussed in detail. We need to
 respect the fundamental rights of the individual, including freedom of
 expression, while avoiding excessive controls which would restrict such rights
 and which would limit the flow of information. We must support mechanisms to
 combat cyber crime, particularly to protect children against sexual abuse and
 exploitation. Respect for fundamental rights in the Internet must not be
 assured without access to knowledge. In this respect, the Tunis Agenda
 empowered and recognized the role to be developed by open standards and by free
 software, especially in the construction of a virtual environment, which is
 collaborative and favorable to development, as well as promoting digital
 inclusion. Ladies and gentlemen, Brazil remains committed to the Tunis Agenda
 and with the implementation of commitments taken on at the world summit about
 the Information Society. The committee of the Internet in Brazil is a
 successful national experience in the management of the national names domain,
 the managing committee is made up by representatives of the government of civil
 society and of the private sector as well as the academic community. This is a
 participative model of Internet governance at national level, fully in
 agreement with the principles of multilateralism, transparency and democracy.
 The IGF here in Brazil, we have less formality, and the presence of
 nongovernmental actors, and the open possibility for everyone to participate as
 individuals or users of the Internet turn this forum into a very special
 instance. Finally, I couldn't but once again emphasize the need for a wide
 program for training society, especially in less developed countries, training
 them in the useful use of the Internet and of information technology. The
 exclusion of a considerable part of mankind from the society of information
 would represent a tragedy that would jeopardize the political and economic
 stability of the world.  To conclude on behalf of the Brazilian government, I
 wish you all an excellent stay in Brazil.  Good Luck, and success in this
 collective undertaking for all of us. Thank you very much, and have a very good
 day [ Applause ]

 >>SÉRGIO REZENDE:   Now I would like to call to present his words, Mr. Hamadoun
 Touré, secretary-general, International Telecommunication Union, ITU.

 >>HAMADOUN TOURÉ:   Good morning.  Mr. Chairman, being the first speaker, I
 will use one of the ITU traditions in congratulating you for all the coming
 speakers so that they save time in not repeating that. So on behalf of all the
 speakers, I would like to congratulate you for your brilliant election [
 Applause ]

 >>HAMADOUN TOURÉ:   And also thank the organizers and the host country for all
 the good things that have done. I hope that will save one minute of each of the
 speakers' time. Thank you very much. I would like to express my gratitude of
 being here, in addressing this.  As Secretary-General of the International
 Telecommunication Union, I have been in the office just for one year, and my
 main focus has been on ICT development. And as you all know, it is very close
 to my heart. The WSIS process has been a very open and transparent one, and I'm
 very pleased that -- to restate that very important step that was decided in
 the ITU plenipotentiary conference in 1998, and at the time the main reason for
 organizing WSIS was that we were close to the deadline of not bridging the
 digital divide.  Actually, the deadline for the so-called missing link.  And I
 would just like to remind you that the monster is not only bigger but it's
 faster.  Therefore, we need to put real action into all the talks that we are
 making here. And I hope that the Rio forum will be a very good continuation of
 the Athens forum and will also come to really concrete results. I am
 summarizing my speech here. It's 20 pages long.  I hope you don't want me to
 read it all. I will make it available for you, but I will just say a few bullet
 points in here. The ITU has been cooperating with all stakeholders since the
 Tunis Summit, and we are very pleased with the progress made so far in many
 areas. And I want to take the opportunity to thank all the partners who have
 been working with us. ITU is mainly busy in three main areas:  Standardization,
 development issues, capacity building in development, and we will host this
 week a couple of forums on those two issues. I believe that capacity building
 will be one of the most important thing for our countries, for all to really
 join the Information Society.  And we need to work together to build, really
 and concretely, an inclusive Information Society where there will be equal
 opportunity for all. One of the key roles in the standards development, our
 work on DSL and cable, wire-line, broadband standards have made end users'
 broadband a reality for hundreds of millions of users over the last few years.
 ITU-T developed X509 as the definitive reference recommendation for electronic
 authentication over public networks and public key infrastructure, PKIs. ITU is
 now carrying out vital work establishing standards on new generation networks,
 or NGN, based on Internet protocol technologies that will eventually replace
 the current PSTN. ITU is also conducting a number of related work programs with
 global scope in areas such as IPTV, cybersecurity, multi-major coding, using
 ITU voice and video standards. Through the development sector, ITU is assisting
 developing countries in using information and communication technologies as an
 engine for accelerated development, social and economic development, national
 prosperity, and global competitiveness.  The Connect the World initiative is
 based on building multistakeholder process to achieve bold targets in ICT
 connectivity. Some of you may have been in Kigali with us just two weeks ago
 where we launched the first Connect the World series in connecting Africa,
 summits in Kigali, which was very successful. Finally, ITU plays an important
 role in capacity building in ICTs and in providing a forum for discussion of
 urgent policy issues by means of events such as the global symposium for
 regulators, and world telecommunication policy forums with systematic meetings
 and workshops on Internet governance, cybersecurity, and Spam, among others.
 Let me also mention that the innovation that has characterized the development
 of the Internet over the past 30 years will innovatively lead to a change in
 the landscape, shifting of roles, of key players, and the introduction of a new
 type of competition on the theme we are here to discuss. Experience shows that
 the more we resist change, the higher the pressure for change.  Having
 witnessed the changes in the ITU landscape, I'm certainly in a very good
 position to say this. In summary, what is needed is next-generation Internet
 governance, the development of an enabling environment that assists governments
 to foster supportive, transparent, pro-competitive policy, as well as a legal
 and regulatory framework to provide appropriate incentives for investment and
 community development in the information society. What is needed is the
 development of an overarching and enduring architecture based on policy, legal
 and regulatory initiatives with intergovernmental collaboration, and
 capacity-building efforts may be made toward finding common international
 technical and policy approaches to promote an enabling environment globally,
 offering the maximum benefits to society. In conclusion, I would like to remind
 you all of the spirit of the WSIS that is of inconclusion, cooperation, and
 tolerance. Let the beautiful skies of Rio be the uniting force for this
 meeting. Thank you very much. [ Applause ]

 >>SÉRGIO REZENDE:   Thank you, Mr. Touré.  I would like now to ask Ms. Anriette
 Esterhuysen, executive director, Association for Progressive Communications,
 APC.

 >>ANRIETTE ESTERHUYSEN:   Thank you, chairman.  And thank you, Mr. Touré, for
 cutting some of my speech. It's -- one always prepares something beforehand. 
 But I think like other speakers and like the chair in his introduction
 indicated, the Internet has enormous potential for contributing to all aspects
 of human development.  And we in my organization believe it's a public good,
 and therefore it should be governed as a public good based on public interest
 principles. And also, this governance should take place in the public domain.
 We need all institutions and all processes that are involved in governance of
 the Internet to be transparent, to facilitate participation, and participation
 from all stakeholders, and participation in decision-making, to provide access
 to information. And this is a very broad -- this does not apply just to ICANN;
 this applies to all aspects of Internet policy and government. On the themes of
 the forum, we think there are some key issues.  Some of them have been
 addressed already.  In the security theme, as was said by the chair, unless you
 link human rights and the right to privacy and other freedoms to security, you
 can create a less-secure environment rather than a more-secure environment. 
 And we urge the IGF to maintain this link. In the theme of openness, we think
 there are two primary issues to be addressed.  On the one hand, freedoms,
 freedom of expression, and the removal of barriers to people being able to use
 the Internet in any way they want to.  And on the other hand, standards. 
 Increasingly, there are standards being made outside of public spaces that have
 social implications that limit what people can do with the Internet.  And the
 IGF needs to address this. This touches on issues of intellectual property,
 interoperability between different applications and devices.  And these are
 things that impact on the cost.  Why should blind people pay more for
 interfaces to read text because they're blind and because someone owns a
 royalty on making two applications talk to one another?  This is wrong. On the
 issue of access, I think as has been said, it's really vital.  We heard
 already, five billion people in the world do not have access.  We hear
 proclamations about wireless solutions, about private sector investment and
 initiatives driven by governments, by intergovernmental organizations.  And,
 yet, there are still five billion people in the world without access. The IGF
 needs to prioritize this. And then on diversity, I think what we would say
 about diversity is that the key to addressing diversity is, it's almost as an
 equation, if you put openness and access together, you will have diversity.  If
 you remove the barriers that are created by rigid, proprietary intellectual
 property regimes, you will have more creation, more innovation. So let's focus
 on diversity as an issue, and linguistic diversity, cultural diversity.  But
 let's remember that by creating more access and more openness, we will
 immediately, automatically achieve more diversity. And then, finally, about
 ICANN.  I think that we would like to commend the IGF for putting critical
 Internet resources on the agenda.  It's an important issue.  But there's also a
 lot more to talk about other than ICANN.  And I've already highlighted many of
 these issues.  So while not avoiding talking about controversial issues, let's
 not let them dominate the space for the next few days, because there are many
 other critical issues.  And that is why we are here. [ Applause ]

 >>SÉRGIO REZENDE:   Thank you, Ms.  Esterhuysen. I'd like to now call Mr. Guy
 Sebban, Secretary-General for the International Chamber of Commerce, ICC.

 >>GUY SEBBAN:   Excellencies, distinguished participants, ladies and gentlemen,
 good morning. I am very pleased to be here no longer Rio to participate in this
 opening ceremony of the second annual Internet Governance Forum. I am very
 proud to speak on behalf of the business community just after the distinguished
 representative of ITU, an intergovernmental organization, and after the
 representation by Anriette on behalf of civil society.  It's important, in
 fact, to keep in mind these three main actors, which are called stakeholders. 
 And this multistakeholder stakeholder approach, on an equal footing, is
 certainly something that we appreciate very much in the previous session of the
 IGF in Athens. As you can notice, I have applied the rule that our friend has
 given us, and I have said nothing to thank everybody.  But I cannot go on
 without thanking not only the organizers and the participants, but also to
 thank Brazil as a country and all the Brazilian representatives for hosting us
 here. About the goals of this series of meetings called "IGF."  In Athens, we
 have set the goals and objectives.  It was to exchange between specialists,
 between representatives of civil society, between business people, between
 representatives of governments on different issues which are directly linked
 with Internet governance. In this sense, the Athens meeting was a great
 success. But we have to go further.  All these issues should be treated with a
 lot of attention.  And all the discussions that have started in Athens should
 go on and be deepened and broadened.  And that is paving the way also for the
 next meetings that will take place in India in 2008. Maybe two words about
 Brazil.  Brazil is one of the four "BRIC" countries, as we call them usually. 
 And it's incredible to see the development of this country, and especially in
 the field of information and communication technology. The reason why this
 development has occurred is probably because Brazil has applied some basic
 rules which are very well known to foster the development of new technologies
 and to foster entrepreneurship.  This big country is a democracy, respecting
 the rule of law, respecting intellectual property rights, and has put in place
 the right infrastructure to help the development of information and
 communication technologies.  We see in this country great possibility for
 Internet connection, and in some cases, you can get that even for free. That's
 for the aspects linked with governments.  But I have said that we have also to
 take into account the role and responsibility of the business community.
 Usually business is associated with technology.  And business has invested a
 lot in research and development, and also in physical investments, in order to
 help different people to enjoy the benefits of Internet and all the information
 and communication technologies. Not being a specialist in this area, I will
 just read some new technological development that have occurred in this area.
 Quantum leaps in computing memory through rapid advances in cheap technology,
 powerful machines in units so small that they are undetectable by the human
 eye, nano technologies, face recognition software for better security in the
 airports, smart engines, social networking, thanks to Web 2.0, long-distance
 medical monitoring and long-distance learning, and the list goes on.  I could
 spend a lot of time explaining all the new developments that are due to
 technology in which the business community has invested a lot in terms of
 people and money. But to be successful, it's not enough to have on one side as
 governments and the intergovernmental organizations playing the role and on the
 other side the businesses trying also to reach some objectives. I think the key
 word in this arena is certainly "cooperation."  And this cooperation between
 these actors -- governments, business, civil society -- is absolutely
 essential.  And the business community not only investing and making research,
 has also spent a lot of efforts in order to convince the governments to put in
 place the right legislative framework.  For us, this is absolutely key to
 create what is called this enabling environment, which means that the
 governments are really putting in place the right condition for attracting
 business in the different countries. But all these efforts finally are done for
 what reason?  I think it's mainly also to satisfy the needs of individuals. 
 And it's a pity to see that only a small proportion of the people living on
 this earth have access to these technologies. So I think all these efforts
 should be made for permitting access to the many billions of people who don't
 enjoy this possibility. You know that our organization, ICC, has launched an
 initiative called BASIS.  And I just wanted to tell you two things about our
 organization.  First of all, it's that we have recently published a booklet
 which is called "An Inventory of Policy Position and Practical Guidance," in
 which we have put all the position papers and the policy positions that we have
 developed in our commission.  That's one achievement of a team of many experts.
 And we are very pleased to offer you this booklet, which is available here on
 our store. And a last word about our organization.  In Athens, we have
 organized one workshop.  Here, in Rio, we are organizing two workshops.  That
 means that we will have one which is organized with the Oxford Institute on
 security, which seems to be also a very important topic these days.  And we
 will focus in this workshop mainly on digital identity management and on
 identification. The second workshop is about multistakeholder policy
 development processes, which is very important.  And we are co-organizing that
 with the French Foreign Ministry of Affairs and the Association for Progressive
 Communication, the Swiss Off. Comm., and also Congo.  So it's a true
 multistakeholder participation.  And we invite all of you to participate as
 much as you can to these workshops. So I would conclude now my remarks.  And I
 would like to thank you very much for your attention and for your presence and
 for your energy and your enthusiasm to participate in this forum and make it a
 great success. Thank you. [ Applause ]

 >>SÉRGIO REZENDE:   Thank you, Mr. Sebban.  I'm afraid we are lagging in time. 
 I have to ask the speakers again to be as brief as they can.  And I'd like to
 call now Ms. Lynn St. Amour, president and CEO of the Internet Society.

 >>LYNN ST. AMOUR:   It is a great pleasure for me to be near Rio de Janeiro,
 Brazil, for the Internet Governance Forum this week.  And thank you to all
 those who made it possible. I would like to share with you the perspective I
 bring to the IGF as president and CEO of the Internet Society.  And today, the
 message I would like to focus on is best captured by the possibly somewhat
 overexposed phrase "think globally and act locally." ISOC is an independent,
 international nonprofit organization with more than 26,000 members in 180
 countries and over 180 chapters spread around the world. We are proud to have
 been established by two of the fathers of the Internet, Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf.
  And, in fact, Vint was the first executive director of the Internet Society. 
 ISOC has promoted the open development and growth of the Internet since 1992. 
 We are the organizational home for the Internet Engineering Task Force, IETF.
 We work globally and locally and for over 15 years, our activities,
 particularly in developing countries, have helped expand the reach of the
 Internet and worked to strengthen the local environment and increase local
 capacities of all kinds. A healthy and robust Internet requires local
 conditions that support an environment characterized by choice, connectivity,
 and active communities, an environment in which skills development,
 capacity-building, and local content development are real priorities, an
 environment in which businesses are attracted by enabling public policy
 environments and predictable investment climates. These characteristics are not
 particular to the Internet or to the Internet's deployment.  They are
 fundamental to a nation's economic and social development. For the Internet to
 be a powerful instrument that increases productivity, generates economic
 growth, job creation, and employability and improve the quality of life for
 all, it needs conditions in which it can flourish.  This is no trivial matter. 
 It is not easy.  Yet these conditions are essential to bringing the next
 billion people online.  And the billion after that, the billion after that, the
 billion after that, the billion after that. By the time we get those billion
 people online, there will be several more billion that need to come online. The
 Internet Governance Forum presents all stakeholders with a unique opportunity
 to catalyze local change. The IGF is not only a forum for dialogue, but it is a
 medium that should encourage fundamental change at the local level to empower
 communities, build capacity and skills, enable the Internet's expansion,
 thereby contributing to economic and social development. The results of the IGF
 must be to contribute to and support the deployment of the Internet, and
 fundamentally, this must be done at the local level.  So let us leverage the
 IGF to bring forth the tools, skills, and knowledge to empower all
 stakeholders, including governments, to effect this change.  To succeed, we
 must preserve and promote the spirit and intent of the IGF.  We must preserve
 and promote its multistakeholderism, its dynamic, open, and collaborative
 nature, and its encouragement of open and frank exchanges of views, free from
 the pressure of negotiations. Supporting and contributing to the evolution of
 the Internet as an open, decentralized platform for innovation, creativity, and
 economic opportunity is the best way for the Internet to help improve the lives
 of people everywhere. We have seen that throughout its history, the Internet
 has always been defined by the energy and ideas of those who use it.  As new
 communities come online, we are excited by the creativity and innovation they
 bring, and we are constantly reminded of the duty we all share in supporting
 their emergence. ISOC encourages all stakeholders to reinvigorate their
 commitment to assisting new communities to come online and identifying local
 solutions to the challenges that we all face in ensuring the Internet is for
 everyone, as we still have a very, very long way to go. Thank you. [ Applause ]

 >>SÉRGIO REZENDE:   Thank you, Ms. St. Amour.  I'd like to call his excellency,
 Mr. José Mariano Gago, Minister of Science and Technology and Higher Education
 of Portugal.

 >>JOSÉ MARIANO GAGO:   Minister Sérgio Rezende, Minister Gilberto Gil,
 Secretary-General of the U.N., representatives of governments and international
 organizations, ladies and gentlemen, first of all, as Acting President of the
 Council of Ministers of the European Union, responsible for policies on the
 society of information and representative of the Portuguese government, I would
 like to warmly greet and in Portuguese, the Brazilian government and organizers
 of this forum.  Congratulations and thank you for the hospitality and for the
 quality of organization of this meeting. Portugal is a justly proud for the
 success and affirmation of Brazil, which has shown in an exemplary manner
 tremendous capacity for progress in the conceiving and adopting of policies for
 the information society in the benefit of its economic and social development.
 The Brazilian initiative to organize tomorrow a seminar on free access to
 knowledge in Portuguese-speaking countries deserves our full support, because
 we are certain that this will stimulate similar actions in other language or
 regional spaces. The European Union shares from the very first moment the major
 objectives and the preparation of this IGF, as well as the meetings that
 preceded it.  The European Union was always in favor of the open, diverse,
 multivaried nature of the forum, which is geographically balanced and made up
 of organizations of different natures whose wealth is precisely in its
 innovative nature as to the site of debate and concentration of the forum. 
 It's not just yet another political, multilateral instance, but it is an open
 and innovative forum.  And this seems to us to be the best way for us to work
 together to defend the very social innovation the Internet has brought about.
 The European Union has soon understood that we weren't dealing here with just
 infrastructures, but these were social networks and movements. The notion of
 policies for the Information Society in every country as well as at the union
 school has proved this understanding. Also, the definition of common objectives
 for the whole European Union is a consequence of this policy. The reference
 framework adopted, which we call I-2010, enshrines our present goals.  European
 space for information, our bed in the research and the development in
 information and communication technologies, and encouragement to advanced
 content and services. Lines of action such as the generalization of the wide
 band security and neutrality, modernization of public services as in the e-gov
 and the public bed in the generalized use of the Internet and information
 technologies for economic competitiveness as well as in health, education,
 trade, supply, and production of multicultural and multilingual contents for
 the capacity building and the very breathing of democratic societies.  And in
 the support to social and cultural inclusion and in the support of people with
 deficiencies or special needs, and more recently, initiatives for the
 development and views of the RFIT make true in the European Union the political
 objectives that are the object of mutual assessment, of benchmarking,
 discussion, exchange of experience between countries and regions. It is this
 experience that the European Union wishes to share with the rest of the world.
 The investment of the union in the creation and operation of networks for
 science and education, not just within its own territory, but also in
 connection, as happens, with Latin America, with Africa, all the Mediterranean
 basin, are concrete examples of the wish for cooperation and support to
 development at global scale. The European Union wishes, of course, its efforts
 favoring development and knowledge at global scale to find increasing response
 and partnerships in other spaces, organizations, and countries. And this is
 what we invite you to. It is not by chance that the World Wide Web model was
 developed in one of the most important international research laboratories, the
 Cern, as an open tool of free use. The new forms of development and open
 organization of the Internet and the role developed by the various
 organizations intervening in the present open model for governance, especially
 the ICANN, have shown so far an unprecedented response capacity. The present
 model is flexible, dynamic.  It can be and has been improved, and should
 continue. Governments should guarantee independence of organizations that
 participate, especially the ICANN, and guarantee a balance and international
 openness. It would be going backwards, and this would be unacceptable in our
 opinion to go back to old forms of multilateralism applied to the Internet. In
 the last decades, the Internet revolutionizes and expands our expectations for
 freedom and democratic participation of access to information and knowledge, of
 plurality of languages and cultures, and the variety and wealth in the action
 of millions of social actors at planet scale. The Internet has fulfilled a
 hundred, a thousand times its initial promise, and has opened up new
 challenges, against free access to the Internet, against the formation of
 social networks for global information, and against the freedom of expression
 and access to knowledge, stand all fanaticisms and all enemies of democracy in
 vain. The World Summit on the Information Society stated what we defend
 heartily, not just for us in Europe but throughout the world, is the following.
 And the Geneva declaration says, Information Society and that's outlines in the
 universal declaration of human rights that everyone has the right to freedom of
 opinion and expression.  That this right includes freedom to hold opinions
 without interference, and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas
 through any media and regardless of frontiers. Communication is a fundamental
 social process.  A basic human need, and the foundation of all social
 organization. It is central to the Information Society. Everyone, everywhere,
 should have the opportunity to participate and no one should be excluded from
 the benefits the information society offers. Thank you very much. [ Applause ]

 >>SÉRGIO REZENDE:   Thank you, Minister Mariano Gago. I would like to now call
 Mr. Paul Twomey, president, CEO of ICANN.

 >>PAUL TWOMEY:   Minister Rezende, Minister Gil, ladies and gentlemen, I would
 like to begin by congratulating the government of Brazil and the Brazilian
 Internet community and the United Nations, in particular the IGF Secretariat,
 for arranging this second meeting of the Internet Governance Forum in this
 remarkable city of Rio de Janeiro. The Internet Governance Forum brings
 together a diverse group of individuals in the aim of sharing knowledge and
 experience over and about this one global interoperable Internet. We should all
 be proud of our achievements so far.  Over one billion individuals online. 
 Trillions of dollars of business being conducted over a network which comprises
 hundreds of millions of computers and devices all communicating with one
 another across the globe. It has given the individual in our societies an
 ability to communicate and interact with others unprecedented in human history.
 It has reformed industries, and caused us to rethink how we view ourselves and
 our planet. But with this extraordinary change also comes challenges.  And that
 is what this forum is about:  Bringing together people to talk, review,
 discuss, and hopefully envision solutions to some of the issues that are before
 us. The agenda of this meeting captures them.  Most important, of course, as
 others have said, is access. Our discussions here will mean nothing to someone
 not able to get onto the network in the first place. And the challenge now is
 to ensure that we bring the next billion people online. Diversity, openness,
 security, access, critical internet resources, are all topics for this IGF. 
 All these topics will be discussed over the course of these next few days, and
 I hope at the end of it we end up one step further down the line in solving
 some of the issues they represent. ICANN, like other Internet organizations, is
 committed to the multistakeholder and open way of doing business where anyone,
 anyone, from governments, the technical community, business and civil society
 can participate freely, either in person or virtually. We are pleased that the
 IGF is also following this model. ICANN has a participative community of up to
 20,000 people around the world involved within its very narrow mandate of
 technical coordination for the DNS and I.P. addressing. I would like to issue a
 personal invitation to all people here to join that community, to participate
 as you wish and desire, and to help with their work and its evolution. Before
 finishing, I would also like to thank ITU secretary-general Hamadoun Touré, and
 the UNESCO leadership for their support and assistance in helping to produce a
 joint workshop with ICANN this week that will review how international
 cooperation can be used to establish standards for a multilingual, global, and
 interoperable Internet, the inevitable next step for this extraordinary medium.
 I wish you all a fruitful week, and I look forward to continuing discussions
 again next year in Delhi. Thank you [ Applause ]

 >>SÉRGIO REZENDE:   Thank you, Mr. Twomey. I would like now to call Mr. Naoyuki
 Akikusa, chairman Fujitsu limited, Chairman of Global Information
 Infrastructure Commission.  And I am going to ask Minister Gilberto Gil to
 chair the remainder of this session.

 >>NAOYUKI AKIKUSA:   Mr. Chairman and all the distinguished participants, thank
 you for the opportunity to visit Rio de Janeiro. I appreciate the warm welcome
 from our Brazilian host. I have been working with various business
 organizations on policy development. Currently, I am serving as the chairman of
 the Global Information Infrastructure Commission, GIIC. The GIIC's mission is to
 provide private sector leadership to foster investment in the ICT and Internet
 capability. The GIIC has actively participated in many meetings of the World
 Summit on the Information Society, the WSIS, and also the -- in the discussion
 at the IGF.  And holding workshop on access tomorrow morning. At GIIC annual
 meeting in Tokyo next April, and we hope to discuss further the issue of
 Internet governance and related issues. Today I want to talk about two topics. 
 One is environment and Internet -- and ICT. Second one is corporate management
 and the Internet. Speaking of the environment and ICT, considering the
 sustainability of economic development, empowered by the Internet. The Internet
 is becoming a more important factor.  However, we have most -- we have not
 sufficiently discussed environmental impact of the use of such technology. The
 Internet and ICT can reduce the burden of the environment.  For example,
 digitalization of mechanical components greatly improve their efficiencies. For
 example, automotive controls and medical equipment like CT, and also
 teleconference reduces physical movement of persons and goods. Energy
 management system improves power efficiency in businesses and homes in the
 public sector.  However, the energy consumption in the world ICT use -- sorry,
 in the world IC uses is not so small. We need to think about more efficient use
 of our resources. The ICT uses account for 2% of CO2 consumption worldwide.
 Some studies show that data centers consume 23% of that amount.  Half of -- the
 air conditioning for cooling consumes half of the power in the datacenter. I
 would like to show some example.  Replacing ten racks of servers by one blade
 server can annually reduce CO2 emissions by the equivalent amount of planting
 200 trees. The ISP in our company, Fujitsu Group, is now using 25% of its mail
 servers to combat Spam.  And 90% of e-mail coming to Fujitsu are Spam. I think
 probably the communication carrier use a huge amount of energy and cost for
 Spam. We are facing many environmental matters to be solved and to discuss in
 the future. For the healthy development of the global Internet, I think we
 should pay more attention to assessing this wasted energy and cost. Secondly,
 I would like to touch upon the corporate management and the Internet. The
 Internet is a crucial part of the business infrastructure because it circulates
 everywhere like the air. Companies like Fujitsu heavily depend on the Internet
 application systems, from R&D, office work, training and education. If Internet
 doesn't work, it means we cannot continue our business operation. However, many
 in top management site does not notice this, and think of the Internet as a
 given infrastructure to utilize. Only a few recognize Internet safety as a
 critical management issue. To keep secure and stable Internet operation is
 essential part of to corporate management. And a company executive should
 recognize the Internet as one of the most important management issues and
 coincidentally add something like a subset of worldwide Internet governance.
 Finally, the private sector represented only 13% of all at the IGF in Athens. The
 important thing for the private sector should be to participate more in the IGF
 and contribute to its processes. Thank you very much [ Applause ]

 >>GILBERTO GIL:  Next speaker Ms. Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri, Minister of
 Communications of South Africa.  Please.

 >>IVY MATSEPE-CASABURRI:  Thank you, Mr. Chairman, as well as the secretary to
 the forum. I'd like to thank Brazil in particular for having hosted this, but I
 will do away with all the other thank you's, but I would like to say a special
 thank you to the secretary-general of the United Nations for fulfilling the
 mandate of the World Summit on the Information Society by convening the
 Internet Governance Forum to enable the multilateral, multistakeholder,
 democratic and transparent dialogue to take place. And I'd like to thank the
 secretary-general of the ITU in particular for carrying -- for doing a great
 deal of work to carry this mandate forward. It is now two years since we
 decided at the second phase of the World Summit on the Information Society that
 we should establish this multistakeholder forum, this Internet Governance
 Forum, in order to bring together these representatives that we have here
 today. Few in the world could have predicted that the Internet would grow in
 the global phenomena it is today. We must thank the dedicated individuals who
 have committed so much to its growth and to its management. The benefits of
 increased efficiency and the services that can be delivered through Internet
 technology have been closely followed by policy challenges, and many of us face
 those challenges.  And we must all rise to those challenges. One of the such
 challenges is that one that is the most urgent of challenges facing humankind
 and it is the eradication of poverty and of underdevelopment. This will remain
 a critical challenge for some years yet. I therefore appeal to this forum to
 continue to focus on the collective view that was expressed by the declaration
 of principles in Tunis or in Geneva to build a people-centered, inclusive, and
 development-oriented Information Society, enabling the individuals,
 communities, and peoples to achieve their full potential in promoting
 sustainable development and improving their quality of life. But as we heard
 today, you can't use it unless you have access to it. And in my country we have
 a favorite phrase:  If you don't use it, you lose it. But we have neither that
 which we can lose.  And it's important to bring that and make sure that we can
 actually also use it. In east and southern Africa there has already been
 collaborative effort under the network program of the A.U., the African Union,
 to build cables, undersea cables, to improve access and to reduce the cost of
 Internet connectivity as part of what the secretary-general of the ITU spoke
 about this morning, the connect Africa concept. Another one of the key
 challenges we face as a people but also as a whole world, and Africa in
 particular, are the challenges that we must ensure the participation of
 representative stakeholders on a consistent basis, especially from developing
 countries and their unconnected people. We therefore need to consider how we
 can use this tool, the Internet, to address exclusion and underdevelopment. We
 therefore can ask ourselves what can the IGF do for the billions who do not yet
 have access, billions who can benefit from the improved way of doing things
 from accessing government services to e-health, e-education services, et
 cetera, and a whole range of other services which are offered through the
 Internet. We need practical solutions to support development. And this
 development is crucial and crucial now. And as we have endorsed at the WSIS,
 such things as local content, capacity building, the right of countries to
 manage their own Internet resources whilst maintaining global coordination are
 all subject matters of this conference and we hope that as we end the
 conference we will have moved forward in attending to some of these things. We
 must take a collective -- make a collective commitment to the next generation
 Internet and the technologies that will foster the next generation, but we must
 make sure that the stability and security of the Internet is a global facility
 and ensuring its requisite legitimacy and governance based on full
 participation of all stakeholders is maintained. I, therefore, would like to
 report and echo the call of my own president when he was in Tunis by appealing
 to everyone that we should ourselves take action to translate the shared vision
 of an inclusive, development-oriented Information Society into practical
 reality. We hope that this forum will propel us forward in this mission for
 benefit of the world, but especially for one of the most marginalized areas of
 the world, Africa, and I thank you. [ Applause ]

 >> Thank you, Ms. Casaburri. Next speaker, Mr. Adama Samassékou, executive
 secretary, African academy of languages.

 >>ADAMA SAMASSEKOU:   Excellencies, Mr. Chairperson, ministers, secretary of
 the ITU, honorable guests, ladies and gentlemen, good morning. Let me first of
 all to begin by saying to you what a great honor it is for me to address this
 great family of the Information Society, this family of shared knowledge and
 know-how that I am pleased to meet once again here in Rio. It is a pleasure
 also for me to thank the Brazilian government for the welcome they have
 extended to us and the executive secretary of the forum for the convening of
 this second session. My dear friends, I am delighted by the passion I have seen
 at this Internet Governance Forum, and no one can be unaware of the great
 importance of this forum. That is why I should like to share with you a few
 thoughts regarding the process we began more than five years ago. First of all,
 allow me to recall some of the achievements of the World Summit on the
 Information Society process. First of all, what I recall the spirit of the
 summit, which is typified by the multistakeholder approach which led to an
 innovative mechanism with the establishment and institutionalization of the
 civil society office and the representation of the private sector which has led
 to the development of a dynamic inclusive partnership bringing together all of
 the stakeholders, governments, civil society, the private sector, and
 intergovernmental organizations. Secondly, two major African initiatives, the
 digital solidarity fund in Geneva and MAAYA, the world network for linguistic
 diversity in Tunis. Thirdly, the development of a follow-up mechanism for the
 implementation of the guidelines that emerged from the Geneva phase into the
 global coordination of the ITU, UNESCO, and UNDP.  And also I would hail the
 initiative of the ITU. Fourth, the creation of the Internet Governance Forum
 which was made formal in Tunis. But my dear friends, we are today, if I can put
 it that way, at a crossroads, a crossroads given the challenges facing the
 Internet Governance Forum. The IGF is the only formal arrangement that emerged
 from the WSIS, bringing together all of our great international family.  Is it
 not necessary that in order to keep up this beautiful enthusiasm and to promote
 within the forum a mechanism for making recommendations for specific action
 addressing all of the issues of the mandate of the IGF? Of the 12 points of the
 mandate of the IGF, I'd like in particular to highlight the following:
 Practices, and in this regard, make full use of expertise of academic,
 scientific, and technical communities. Five, advise all stakeholders in
 proposing ways and means to accelerate the availability and affordability of
 Internet in the developing world. Seven, identify emerging issues, bring them
 to the attention of relevant bodies and the general public, and, where
 appropriate, make recommendations. Eight, point eight, contribute to
 capacity-building for Internet governance in developing countries, drawing
 fully on local sources of knowledge and expertise. Point 11, help to find
 solutions to the issues arising from the use and misuse of the Internet of
 particular concern to everyday users. For that point of view, then, the
 discussion on the democratization of the Internet should also include, first,
 the need for each citizen of our planet to have access to this tool in their
 language.  And also the urgent need to work together in order to tackle the
 serious abuses of Internet use.  We can do this through a major program of
 training and awareness promotion, in particular, through libraries and other
 appropriate common spaces, making them at the core of the new society we are
 building, and, in particular, for up and coming generations. In this context,
 then, we must take the fortunate opportunity of next year being the
 international year for languages, to lay greater stress on the points I have
 just made at the third session of the IGF in India. As executive secretary of
 the African academy of languages and as president of the global network for
 linguistic diversity, I should like to assure you of our willingness to work
 with the bodies of the forum to that end. It is already a great pleasure for me
 to invite you to consult the UNESCO Web site, which is the lead organization
 for next year, the international year of languages, I would like to draw
 attention to the excellent statement by the director general, Mr. Matsuura,
 saying, languages are important. Lastly, in conclusion, I should like to make
 an appeal here to this august body to encourage us all to think -- in the
 Internet Governance Forum, to think about ways and means of building regional
 dynamism so that societies can take on board the new ICTs, taking into account
 the specifics of each region of world to ensure greater participation by all in
 the benefits of this global common good that is the Internet. May the almighty
 be with us in carrying out our undertaking to build humanness in the world, a
 new humanity which is the only way of dehumanizing states between people. 
 Thank you. [ Applause ]

 >>GILBERTO GIL:   Thank you, Mr. Samassékou. Next speaker, Mr. Luigi Vimercati,
 Under Secretary of Communication, Italy.

 >>LUIGI VIMERCATI:    Distinguished representatives of governments, of
 international organizations, and of the civil society, ladies and gentlemen,
 first of all, I would like to express my appreciation to the government of
 Brazil for hosting this important event and to the IGF secretariat for having
 made possible this second crucial meeting on Internet governance. The Athens
 conference last year opened the way for a global and multistakeholder
 discussion on the development of the most powerful instrument that humanity has
 ever had, able to generate and circulate knowledge and to shift power. From
 then on, Italy has clearly expressed the opinion that a set of principles is
 necessary to allow a democratic and inclusive development of the Internet,
 agreed and shared on a global scale.  In this view, the Italian government,
 together with the United Nations, has organized last September in Rome a
 dialogue forum on Internet rights that saw the participation of more than 700
 delegates from governments, civil society, the private sector, academia, coming
 from 70 different countries. The forum confirmed the necessity to define at an
 international and multistakeholder level common rules for Internet governance,
 which, in our opinion, should take on the form of an "Internet Bill of Rights."
 It is quite evident that the Internet is introducing nowadays radical changes
 in every dimension of human behavior, from economy to communication, to social
 and political relationships. Its hasty growth affects directly human rights and
 shows shortcomings of the measures adopted so far to protect them, but at the
 same time, it reveals an extraordinary potential as a new bottom-up form of
 expression, able to strengthen democracy in the knowledge-based society. Today
 we are witnessing the birth of a new generation of rights pertaining to global
 digital citizenship, which represents an extension, with its specific
 peculiarities, of fundamental human rights. Consequently, a bill of rights is
 needed, a jointly agreed definition of these rights, consistent rules to ensure
 freedom and access to Internet, together with forms of self-regulation, all of
 these to guarantee the rights of single individuals and social groups,
 particularly the most vulnerable ones.  Absence of rules doesn't necessarily
 mean a freer Internet.  We must not forget that freedom of expression and the
 free flow of information and ideas has to go alongside with the safety and the
 integrity of the Internet to make it achieve its full potential and to avoid
 the supremacy of the strong over the weak. We must ensure that everyone in the
 world can benefit from these opportunities offered by the Internet by removing
 all the barriers that hinder full access to the Net and trying to bridge the
 digital divide. For all of these reasons, we are particularly pleased to be
 here today.  The Internet Governance Forum is the ideal place to gather shared
 views on the four areas of discussion -- access, diversity, openness, security
 -- all of them relating to the Internet Bill of Rights. In fact, we firmly
 believe that it is our responsibility as policymakers to reaffirm our
 commitment to make the Internet a means of social cohesion and inclusion and to
 build a people-centered, knowledge-based, and progress-oriented information
 society. Nevertheless, defining principles and common rules for the Internet,
 especially in consideration of its intrinsic characteristics, also entails the
 definition of a new working method.  Internet is, by definition, a place of
 extended discussion, of initiatives involving a large number of people.
 Therefore, it becomes evident that an Internet Bill of Rights cannot be
 achieved through traditional procedures typical of international conventions,
 that is, through top-down cooperation between governments or through classical
 forms of multilateral diplomacy. The Internet Bill of Rights can and must be
 the starting point of a unique process involving a multiplicity of actors at
 different levels. The dynamic coalitions, set up with the IGF, are the best
 example of this new approach that we intend to adopt.  My country participants
 at different levels to the Internet Bill of Rights dynamic coalition which
 tomorrow will convene to share the progress made so far and to jointly identify
 the most appropriate way to define the bill of rights. We expect through your
 participation to bring together a number of actors who will concretely lay
 down, together with us, with our friends of the Brazilian government, and all
 the others, the basis of an Internet Bill of Rights.  We know that it will be a
 long and difficult process, and it is not only a question of establishing
 governance principles of the largest existing space in the world, but also to
 identify the instruments able to guarantee afterwards that they become a
 reference system for the international community.  In this view, we also look
 with expectation to the possibility of reaching an agreement in order to define
 a kind of "high commissioner" of Internet rights. In conclusion, I am certain
 that the well-known competence of Minister Gilberto Gil, of Professor Stefano
 Rodotà, and of all of the participants, will make tomorrow's workshop a
 fundamental step forward towards the creation of an Internet Bill of Rights. I
 am looking forward to meet you all tomorrow.  Thank you very much for your
 attention. [ Applause ]

 >>GILBERTO GIL:   Thank you, Mr. Vimercati. Next speaker, I recommend the
 speakers to obey to the five minutes, six minutes extension. Next speaker, Mr.
 Kiyoshi Mori, vice minister for policy coordination, minister of
 communications, Japan.

 >>KIYOSHI MORI:   Thank you, Mr. Chairman, thank you, Brazilian government. It
 is my great honor to have this opportunity of making a speech at the opening
 ceremony which is held here in the beautiful city of Rio de Janeiro. As we all
 know, the Internet has developed rapidly since its commercialization in 1994,
 and the number of its users is going to exceed one billion worldwide. There are
 many advantages of using the Internet.  The Net can provide access to
 diversified choices in goods and services, activate communication between
 people, and improve productivity of various industries. Toward this goal, all
 stakeholders, including the participants of this IGF meeting, must cooperate
 with each other in order to deploy the Internet further and share its fruits
 among all peoples around the world.  Achieving such a good goal will not be
 easy.  There are many issues to be tackled.  And active challenges are needed
 to resolve those issues. I strongly believe that one of the important purposes
 of IGF meetings is to learn and share the experiences of the challenges with
 each other in order to make it easier to accomplish the ultimate goal of
 Internet deployment throughout society. According to ITU report in 2006, Japan
 has achieved the most inexpensive and fastest Internet access in the world. I
 think there are two main reasons behind this.  Firstly, we established a
 national strategy for the ICT development.  In the year 2001, we launched the
 e-Japan strategy, which promoted nationwide spread of broadband networks.  In
 addition, in 2004, we set a ubiquitous Japan policy, which was aiming at
 enabling ICT connection to anyone at any time anywhere and with anything.
 Secondly, we promoted competition policy in the telecommunications market.  In
 particular, the unbundling of the dominant carrier's facilities and the
 formulation of collocation rules allowed new entrants to the market. Thanks to
 this, innovations and new services had been developed which allowed charges to
 be dramatically lowered and increased consumer benefits. Although having
 achieved a significant development in the ICT field, we still have many things
 to cope with.  As conventional telecommunications network is rapidly replaced
 by I.P.-based network, we are facing various new issues.  I will point out
 three main issues. First, there is the issue of network neutrality.  With more
 I.P. networks and broadband connections, more variety of services are being
 provided.  As a result, the volume of packet traffic has increased and resulted
 in network congestion.  Fair use and equal cost-bearing of the network
 infrastructure is becoming serious issues. Second is the competition policy
 issue that arises from the next-generation network.  The next-generation
 network is expected to improve efficiency of network operation and reliability.
  Consequently, we have to establish the new competition rule to secure the
 mutual connection as well as the openness of service platform of the network.
 Third, it is necessary to promote information security.  We have to improve the
 reliability of the network and applications, in addition to ensuring the
 essential communications in disasters and other emergency situations. In
 conclusion, I have shared with you our country's experiences and achievements,
 as well as our awareness of the issues, considering that our life can be
 improved through proper use of the Internet as a vital tool and that this IGF
 meeting is significant as the place for information-sharing towards that
 purpose. With advanced use of the Internet, new issues that we have not
 experienced before could emerge in the future.  It is important to put our
 heads together to continue our efforts to tackle the issues and to find the
 exercise the best way forward. We believe that the IGF meetings can contribute
 to creating a path from the missing link to the collaboration link through open
 and free discussions.  And Japan is ready to support positively such a movement
 with all of you. Thank you for your kind attention. [ Applause ]

 >>GILBERTO GIL:   Thank you, Mr. Mori.  Next speaker, Mr. John Klensin,
 consultant.

 >>JOHN KLENSIN:   Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, good morning. I seem to
 be the odd person in this session's agenda, since I do not have the privilege
 of speaking for a government or a large and important organization.  I do,
 however, have some experience with the development of the Internet itself, and
 I hope I can share some perspective from the standpoint of the technical
 development of the Internet and how we got to where we are today within with a
 network which is serving billions of users and looking forward to serving
 billions more. Contrary to what one might infer from some of the conversations
 and discussions and publications one has seen in recent years, the Internet was
 not developed and invented in 1962 -- in 1992. Some of us have been involved in
 work on what has become the Internet in its concepts since the late '60s, for
 nearly four decades. And many of us have understood since then that this would
 ultimately become a global network if it was successful at all.  It isn't
 perfect. In general, we preferred to get something working and implemented and
 deployed rather than getting it perfect, spending endless years of exploration
 and discussions about how every possible need could be accommodated.  Had we
 chosen the course of discussion and accommodation of all needs, there probably
 would not be a working Internet today. The possibility of substituting
 discussion for deployment and access remains a risk today. One of the things I
 think we all need to understand and remember as these discussions in IGF and
 elsewhere go forward is, whatever you like about the present nature of the
 Internet and its reach, it is important to remember that the design,
 independent of funding and other initiatives, is not a consequence of any
 action by governments or intergovernmental associations.  Among the many myths
 about the Internet is one that assumes the technological design and development
 community, especially the applications-level development community, has
 historically not cared about the rest of you or the rest of the world's
 populations.  Or has simply been naive about the social and political
 implications of a network like this. We've been concerned about making the
 Internet available to more people in more countries for a rather long time. 
 There were serious discussions about multiscript naming and connectivity and
 content by 1972, including the first of many proposals as to how to do that.
 The notion that we didn't start thinking about these issues until people
 started talking about making the Internet multilingual the last few years just
 has no basis. Our Japanese colleagues had Kanji content on the Internet by 1987
 and were actively using it in e-mail.  Standards were in place for
 interoperable multilingual content by 1992, and were deployed rapidly after
 that, including being carried over into the Web. The original host naming rules
 that ultimately became the domain name rules were built on a foundation that
 considered national use characters and national character sets.  The decision
 to exclude those characters wasn't based on an ignorant preference for English
 or Roman-based characters, but on the fact that the technology at that stage
 just had not matured enough for more international use and the observation that
 the use of multiple characters and multiple options has a tendency to make
 things less interoperable if these become choices.  It is programs useful to
 note that the ITU and ISO made very similar decisions about identifiers for the
 network protocols associated with X25, and with key ISO identifiers for
 approximately the same reasons. Especially in less-developed countries, far
 more of the early connections that were sustainable and that had developed into
 today's Internet environment were the result of largely private sector,
 bottom-up efforts rather than major top-down initiatives. Mutual assistance
 networks for identifying e-mail connectivity paths came into existence in the
 early 1980s.  Private efforts to get developing countries connected at least by
 e-mail and then with full Internet connections came about five years later, in
 the mid-1980s. Many of the Internet governance problems which we see today and
 see discussed are neither new nor Internet-specific, but are generalizations of
 more traditional problems, sometimes in rather thin disguises.  For the subset
 of those issues that are appearing as generalizations, most of the reasons for
 casting them as new topics seem to involve more to do with topics and
 objectives other than getting the Internet spread and deployed and usable.
 Throughout history, at least modern history, we've noticed that criminals and
 pornographers have often been more efficient about adopting and adapting to new
 technologies, especially communications technologies, to their needs than most
 of us have been capable of adopting those technologies. We need to accept that
 and move forward with better technology, but, more important, better rules and
 better social structures and better societal constraints, rather than attacking
 the technology itself and risking damaging what in many respects a conference
 like this is here to celebrate. Unacceptable behaviors, including stalking,
 extortion, fraud, deliberate deception, are not really different, whether done
 face to face or over an electronic communications technology such as the
 Internet. The Internet may call for better intergovernmental arrangements and
 agreements about prosecuting these crimes across borders and better technology
 for identifying the perpetrators.  But we have precedence for those kinds of
 agreements which do not require new structures. Each proposed action that
 treats an unacceptable behavior differently depending on whether it's performed
 over the Internet or in some other context should be examined very carefully,
 and I believe with some suspicion. Finally, almost every decision which has
 been made about the Internet, from the beginnings to the recent times, both
 technological and policy, has had advantages and disadvantages. In the last
 decade or so, and as a community, I believe we have been very poor at looking
 at both those advantages and disadvantages and understanding that we're making
 tradeoffs. At least in retrospect, creation of a market in domain name --
 domain names has caused not only cybersquatting, but also phishing.  Without
 the market, those problems would probably not exist in their present form.
 Creation of an e-mail regime that permits anyone to communicate with anyone
 else without having to be registered with and going through
 government-authorized providers, on models similar to the old PTTs, has turned
 e-mail and now instant messaging into important worldwide communications tools.
  But it also helps facilitate the work of the spammer and virus-spreaders. Even
 the decision to build useful and productive meetings like this and hold them
 involves implicit decisions to not invest the resources in, for example, clean
 water or alleviating hunger.  In each case, I'd like to believe that we, as a
 community, have made the right decisions.  But we need to remember, I believe,
 that there are alternatives and, conversely, selecting those alternatives would
 have changed some of the things that we appreciate today. Thank you again, and
 best wishes for a successful meeting. [ Applause ]

 >>GILBERTO GIL:   Thank you, Mr. Klensin. Next speaker, Ms. Maud de
 Boer-Bucquicchio, deputy secretary general of the Council of Europe.

 >>MAUD DE BOER-BUCQUICCHIO:   Mr. Chairman, excellencies, ladies and gentlemen,
 the Council of Europe, which I represent, is an organization which brings
 together 47 of the 48 European countries on our continent to promote human
 rights, democracy, and the rule of law. Our primary task is to enforce, through
 the European court of human rights, the European convention on human rights. 
 The bill of rights of the whole European continent, which applies both off and
 on-line. Our message, Europe's main message, is clear.  We want to secure
 people's enjoyment of a maximum of rights and services, with minimum
 restrictions, while at the same time seeking to ensure the level of security
 that users are entitled to expect. This is why our organization adopted, just
 five days ago, a policy recommendation for our governments on promoting the
 public service value of the Internet. We in Europe, we want an affordable,
 unrestricted, safe and diverse access to the Internet. My time is short, so I
 will limit myself to a few brief points. First, the Internet is our business. 
 It belongs to all of us, and must not become a virtual jungle in which its
 inherent freedom and anonymity are abused by criminals. These people may be
 operating in a virtual world, but the harm they cause is very real. Our
 response has been the Council of Europe convention on cybercrime and its
 protocol, the only existing international treaty dealing in a comprehensive
 manner and in full respect of human rights with crimes committed through the
 use of the Internet.  It has been signed so far by 43 countries around the
 world.  I encourage other countries to seek accession to the convention as soon
 as possible. The broader the membership, the fewer the hiding places. My second
 point is about children who represent one of the biggest categories of Internet
 users.  The Internet empowers them, but it also creates new threats to their
 safety. Sexual exploitation of children is of course one of such threats.  And
 this is why the Council of Europe convention for the protection of children 
 against sexual exploitation and abuse outlaws groomers and pedo-pornographers
 and reinforces considerably international cooperation.  This treaty too is open
 to non-European countries and I encourage all states to sign up to it. Let me
 also take the occasion to announce the birth this week in Strasbourg of a new
 city, an e-city, made for and with children.  It will be hosted on our Web
 site, and its aim is very simple:  Empower children so that they can contribute
 to a better world nearer to their hopes and dreams. To conclude, ladies and
 gentlemen, we in Europe, adults and children alike, we have a dream and an
 ambition.  The dream is to make democratic citizenship a reality for all on the
 World Wide Web. Our ambition is to show the world the way to achieve this.
 Thank you for your attention [ Applause ]

 >>GILBERTO GIL:   Thank you, Ms. Boer-Bucquicchio. Next speaker, Ms. Catherine
 Trautmann, member of European parliament.

 >>CATHERINE TRAUTMANN:   Thank you, Mr. Chairman, Excellencies, ladies and
 gentlemen. As another European voice, I wish to affirm the strong engagement of
 all the YAWU (phonetic) institutions in the process of the IGF which is, for
 us, a special and unique space for discussion between all who are involved in
 Internet governance. This platform gives us a common context of ideas,
 experiences, and propositions in which we can find inspiration for decision and
 action. The main topics brings the framework and continuity we need to bring
 our points of view closer. The adjunction of new items like critical resources,
 semantic web, protection of children, bill of rights and others shows that the
 method is open so that the responsibility of the results belongs to the
 stakeholders. I want to mention now the key points which we hope will be taken
 in consideration by the participants. Two words express basically the goal of
 Internet governance:  Security and privacy. That means that the respect of
 fundamental rights and especially of freedom of expression a must be considered
 as a truly unquestioned principle of information society. There is no free
 economy, free information if the freedom of individuals, NGOs and journalists
 has no sufficient guarantee. It's vital to counter attempts of censorship and
 ensure that Internet's capability to be a means of free expression is
 maintained. We must also ensure that technological convergence and economical
 concentration don't constitute impediments to freedom and diversity. That's why
 the respect of structural qualities on the Internet, openness and
 interoperability, is needed favoring complimentarity of a superiority of
 platforms to reinforce its successful ability to boost innovation and
 creativity in our global knowledge economy as in the resumption of social
 injustice and the risky consequences of climate change. Security and stability
 of Internet are amongst our priorities because we think without them the
 citizens will not enjoy the benefits which the Internet offers and prohibited
 business will increase as will the violence against people like harassment or
 threats. Children must be especially secure online.  It's very important that
 this topic can be discussed at the IGF. We know that practical solutions are
 expected to bridge the digital divide.  This is not only about access and
 connectivity linked to energetic issues as well but also about access to excess
 which encompasses education and long life learning. It is also important to
 talk about I.P. address allocation, organizations dealing with this issue are
 encouraged to continue their work towards shaping allocation policies of I.P.
 addresses, in a way respecting the justified needs of the developing countries.
 Internet is in constant evolution in its technical aspects as well as in its
 services.  For example, the Internet of things is the subject of more and more
 deliberations and sometimes (inaudible).  As a concept, Internet of things
 needs concretization and it would be good to take and discuss this topic which
 is an emerging issue in public policy perspective in the agenda of the next
 2008 IGF meeting. Let me finish in expressing the hope that a successful
 meeting of the IGF will motivate institutional partners of the enhanced
 cooperation to join the movement, and with some efforts participate to this
 mutual benefit. States must elaborate their discussion, strategy, and method as
 IGF build its own.  Transparency, flexibility, and reciprocity.  It's not only
 a hope.  I think it's a necessity, because we want a free, safe, and democratic
 Internet. Thank you [ Applause ]

 >>GILBERTO GIL:   Thank you, Ms. Trautmann. Next speaker, Mr. Jainder Singh,
 permanent secretary, department of information technology, India.

 >>JAINDER SINGH:   Mr. Chairman, participants from across the world, it is
 indeed a pleasure to speak at this IGF in Rio de Janeiro. ICTs are a
 fundamental all element of all emerging global knowledge societies.  They may
 lead to greater opportunities for those who can partake of them, but they may
 also lead to greater exclusion for those who cannot. While India is a leading
 country in the I.T. sector globally the benefits of the Internet revolution
 have not fully percolated to the everyday life of the common man.  This is
 particularly true for those in the rural areas. Inclusive development is an
 imperative.  We are of the view that the IGF needs to maintain the overall
 development orientation across all the themes. There are several challenges
 that must be addressed in order to make the vision of a truly inclusive
 knowledge society a reality. Perhaps the first challenge towards enabling a
 solution on such a large scale is to review the issues relating to access. 
 Broadband access, access to technology, access to content. This is no easy
 matter, especially in India which is demographically and linguistically so
 diverse. I propose to give an example from India.  The government has launched
 an ambitious process to establish 100,000 village Internet kiosks a national
 broadband network is being rolled out to give connectivity to these centers.
 This would provide access to 600,000 villages. These centers are being
 established through a public/private partnership model.  The centers would
 provide access to education, telemedicine, public services, remote banking, and
 entertainment to hitherto unreached sections of society. These 100,000 centers
 are expected to be operational by December 2008. Capacity building is a private
 area to enable meaningful participation of a larger number of people in the use
 of the Internet. This is critical because of the challenges posed not only by
 illiteracy but also by information illiteracy. Diversity is particularly
 important.  In India, which is a truly multilingual society, only a relatively
 small percentage of Indians can read and write English.  We believe that
 Indians should be able to use the Internet in they're own languages. We have as
 many as 22 official languages, and 11 scripts.  In this context,
 Internationalized Domain Names assume importance.  We are an open society, and
 as a democratic nation we support the principles of openness in the Internet
 domain. We need to focus on security aspects as well.  The stakeholders in the
 Internet need to do more to promote Internet security.  There is a greater need
 to exchange and make available data pertaining to incidents as well as to
 technological solutions to resolve and prevent such incidents.  We already have
 more than 200 million mobile users.  We are now adding 7 million users every
 month. This makes us the fastest growing mobile market in the world. We hope
 that India would also be able to achieve similar growth in the Internet arena.
 The third IGF will be held in New Delhi from December 8th to 11th 2008. The IGF
 is an evolving process of continuity.  We are sure that the fruitful discussion
 of this second IGF will set the tone for the evolving dialogue in the third
 IGF. Discussions on the five themes of this IGF would be continued in the New
 Delhi IGF meeting. This IGF, and in particular the way forward working session,
 will indicate the issues which are to be considered important. It is in the
 keeping of the spirit of the IGF philosophy of inclusiveness, the deliberations
 in New Delhi could perhaps also cover the universalization of the Internet and
 implications for governance.  Development could also be treated alongside the
 other themes so that attention could be paid to this dimension. We anticipate
 that the issues such as access challenges in rural areas and capacity building
 would be discussed in the third IGF. The security of Internet resources and the
 need for cooperation among stakeholders and nations could be part of this
 agenda. The broad multistakeholder format would be followed.  The discussion in
 the IGF would no doubt reflect the principles of multilateralism, democracy and
 transparency of Internet governance. It is an honor and privilege for us to
 welcome all the delegates and the participants to take part in the IGF 2008 in
 New Delhi.  The weather will be lovely at that time of the year and I hope you
 will all be able to come to New Delhi in December next year. I take this
 opportunity to thank Brazil for hosting this meeting of the Internet Governance
 Forum. Thank you [ Applause ]

 >>GILBERTO GIL:   Thank you, Mr. Singh. I am the next and the last speaker. [
 Applause ]

 >>GILBERTO GIL:   I am certain that politics are being re-invented here.  We
 all know about the huge challenges our imagination and our intelligence
 received with the existence of the Internet.  All of that means today a new
 proposal for political spheres in contemporary societies. We are reviewing the
 ideas that oriented the social spaces and values, spaces that were called
 cities or republics before.  The names that were given to this public,
 Republic, which would be the space for the co-existence of people no matter how
 different their cultures and economic conditions. The Internet is the new
 example of this immaterial society.  It is symbolic and creates a space to
 exist fully for all differences. It is the concrete example of this fabric of
 cities and spaces in contemporary life. We find in the word "governance" a way
 to exemplify what political processes require for us to come to minimal
 agreement and consultations. We are practicing here in this ritual of
 approximation and mutual knowledge.  We are now approaching this novelty in new
 policies. However, there are conflicts that go beyond lack of knowledge.  It's
 different points of view that need to be taken into account.  We have to pay
 lots of attention to that. Just our active and critical collaboration will be
 capable of absorbing the different needs that are at stake in the new era of
 communications and exchange. Our imagination must invent new frameworks
 allowing us to regulate these conflicts for the benefit of all and for the
 establishment of a common environment of cooperation. We need to state that our
 cooperation to create public policies in this world summit which takes place in
 the City of Rio de Janeiro has for purpose to invert the picture of asymmetries
 that we see today. I can see that our discussion will progress during these
 days, taking yet another step along the past that will lead us to a global
 public policy. I think, and I am persuaded, that the new technologies are the
 infinite possibilities that our civilization has built for the exercise of its
 own freedom, new relationships and freedoms. Now this language that follows
 standards different from traditional ones must be accessible to all, because
 until all of us are free, then each one of us is less free than he or she could
 be. The treaty established by UNESCO is a very important framework showing the
 path towards a good relationship between states and societies. We are in an era
 when access for all to the knowledge generated by mankind is the only condition
 for us to have justice and safety. We are becoming aware of the fact that the
 intensity of conflicts increases as systems of deprivation increases for
 populations and territories.  The Internet must be a territory for all, an area
 of public coexistence for the exercise of this new citizenship. There is a
 promise which needs to be fulfilled and carried forward by each one of us
 present here today. We have to help prevail the spirit which is behind each
 word.  And we must not allow our speeches to empty or meaning. We need to have
 a live economy supporting symbolic values and densities.  A true economics. We
 have to be able to navigate on this ocean along its flows in order to weave the
 networks and links that dynamize our contemporary society.  And these words
 just need to remind us all that our speeches and our languages should be
 focused on this greater aspiration that brings us all here and which is our
 reason to be, our possible worlds are built and spread by our voices. The
 Internet is transnational.  It cannot be under the control of a country or even
 of some country. We need an ecology for the network like we need an ecology for
 the planet. And to deal with these issues, we need perhaps to think about
 extending the mandate of the United Nations on the subject. We need to
 establish a post-multistakeholder system, a new multistakeholderism. Thank you.
 [ Applause ]

 >>GILBERTO GIL:   The secretary will make some observations, some informations,
 and then we close the session.

 >>MARKUS KUMMER:   Thank you, Chairman. Please note that the written program
 that you have received does not present the latest version, and please check on
 our Web site for the latest versions.  There are some changes. This afternoon's
 session on critical internet resources begins at 3:00 and not 3:30, as was
 originally planned.  3:00, critical internet resources in this room. The
 panelists are kindly requested to go now to the room (saying name) immediately
 after this meeting to prepare for the session. I would also like to draw your
 attention, there's a meeting for parliamentarians from all countries who are
 present here for an interactive in the room imperial at 1:30.  And lastly, at
 4:00 there is a meeting with representatives of Portuguese-speaking countries
 in the room (saying name). Thank you.

 >>GILBERTO GIL:   Thank you very much.  We warmly welcome all of you in the
 city of Rio for this interesting and very important meeting.  We are concluding
 our first session of speakers, and lots of ideas about how Internet will deal
 with the rights, the classical rights, and the new rights that we have faced.
 Diversity, openness, access, security, all of those items, all of those themes
 have been discussed here, and continue to be discussed during the new sessions.
 Thank you very much.  Have a good break, and profit the day in Rio and the next
 days for this very important meeting of the Internet. Thank you very much. [
 Applause ]